Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Approaches For Reduction Of The Defect Density In Group III Nitride Based Heterostructures

  • T. S. Zheleva (a1) (a2), F. Karoui (a2), K. Kirchner (a1), M. Derenge (a1), K. A. Jones (a1), R. D. Vispute (a3) and T. Venkatesan (a3)...

Abstract

Lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO), pendeo-epitaxy (PE), and solid-phase epitaxial recrystallization (SPER) are discussed as three approaches for reducing the defect density in group III nitride based heterostructures. Studies of the LEO GaN and PE GaN revealed, that a major factor for the defect reduction in the laterally overgrown regions is the change of the dominant growth direction - from vertical in the window regions to lateral in the regions over the mask or over the trenches, and the related threading dislocations lines redistribution. The mechanisms of defect reduction in LEO GaN and PE GaN are similar, although they arise through different process routes, and are related to the free-standing (PE) or quasi-free-standing (LEO) growth of GaN, and the associated stress redistribution. The stress distributions in the LEO and PE GaN heterostructures are calculated and compared with finite element modeling. Another approach for reduction of the defects is the SPER process and the related thermal activation for dislocation reactions and grain boundary mobility and migration. This approach is shown in the example of annealed AlN films.

Copyright

References

Hide All
1. Nakamura, S., Senoh, M., Nagahama, S., Isawa, N., Yamada, T., Matsushita, T., Kiuoki, H., Sugimoto, Y., Kozaki, T., Umemoto, H., Sano, M., and Chocho, M., Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 211 (1998).
2. Kozodoy, P., Ibbetson, J.P., Marchand, H., Fini, P.T., Keller, S., DenBaars, S.P., Speck, J.S., and Mishra, U.K., Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 975 (1998).
3. Mukai, T., Takekawa, K., Nakamura, S., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 839 (1998).
4. Sasaoka, C., Sumakawa, H., Kimura, A., Nido, M., Usui, A., and Sakai, A., J. Cryst. Growth, 189, 61 (1998).
5. Ventury, R., Marchand, H., Ibbetson, J.P., Fini, P.T., Keller, S., Speck, J.S., DenBaars, S.P., and Mishra, U., 25-th Int. Symp. on Compound Semicond., Nara, Japan, Oct 12-16, 1998.
6. Parish, G., Keller, S., Kozodoy, P., Ibbetson, J.P., Marchand, H., Fini, P.T., Fleisher, S.B., DenBaars, S.P., Mishra, U.K., Tarsa, E.J., Conference on Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices, Perth, Australia, 14-16 Dec. 1998.
7. Zheleva, T.S., Nam, O.H., Bremser, M.D., and Davis, R.F., Appl. Phys. Lett. 71 (17), 2472 (1997).
8. Nam, O.H., Zheleva, T.S., Bremser, M.D., and Davis, R.F., Appl. Phys. Lett. 71 (18), 2638 (1997).
9. Usui, A., Sunakawa, H., Sakai, A., Jamaguchi, A.A., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L899 (1997).
10. Sakai, A., Sunakawa, H., Usui, A., Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2259 (1997).
11. Nam, O.-H., Zheleva, T.S., Bremser, M.D., and Davis, R.F., J. Electr. Mater. 27, 233 (1998).
12. Zheleva, T.S., Nam, O.-H., Ashmawi, W.M., Griffin, J.D., and Davis, R.F., J. Cryst. Growth, 222, 706 (2001).
13. Fareed, R.S.Q., Yang, J.W., Zhang, J., Adivarahan, V., Chaturvedi, V., and Khan, M. Asif, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77 (15), 2343 (2000).
14. Marchand, H., Ibbetson, J.P., Fini, P.T., Keller, S., DenBaars, S., Speck, J.S., Mishra, U.K., J. Cryst. Growth, 195, 328 (1998).
15. Marchand, H., Wu, X.H., Ibbetson, J.P., Fini, P.T., Kozodoy, P., Keller, S., Speck, J.S., DenBaars, S.P., and Mishra, U.K., Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 747, (1998).
16. Beaumont, B., Haffouz, S., Gibart, P., Appl. Phys. Lett. 72 (8), 921 (1998).
17. Beaumont, B., Vaille, M., Nataf, G., Bouillè, A., Guillaume, J.-C., Vènnègues, P., Haffouz, S., Gibart, Pierre, MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 3, 20 (1998).
18. Dunn, K., Babcock, S., Stone, D., Matyi, R., Zhang, L., and Kuech, T., MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 5S1, W2.11 (2000).
19. Zheleva, T., Smith, S., Thomson, D., Linthicum, K., Rajagopal, P., and Davis, R.F., J. Electr. Mater. 28, (4), L5 (1999).
20. Zheleva, T., Smith, S., Thomson, D., Gehrke, T., Linthicum, K., Rajagopal, P., Carlson, E., Ashmawi, W., and Davis, R.F., MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1, G3.38 (1999).
21. Linthicum, K.J., Gehrke, T., Thomson, D.B., Tracy, K.M., Carlson, E.P., Smith, T.P., Zheleva, T.S., Zorman, C.A., Mehregany, M., Davis, R.F., MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1, G4.9 (1999).
22. Linthicum, K.J., Gehrke, T., Thomson, D.B., Carlson, E.P., Rajagopal, P., Smith, T.P., and Davis, R.F., Appl. Phys. Lett., 75 (2), 196 (1999).
23. Gehrke, T., Linthicum, K.J., Thomson, D.B., Rajagopal, P., Smith, T.P., and Davis, R.F., MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1, G3.2 (1999).
24. Zheleva, T. S., Ashmawi, W. M., and Jones, K. A., phys. stat. sol. (a) 176, 545 (1999).
25. Davis, R. F., Nam, O.-H., Zheleva, T.S., Bremser, M.D., Linthicum, K.J., Gehrke, T., Rajagopal, P., and Thomson, D.B., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No 164, Microsc. Semicond. Mater. Conf., Oxford, 22-25 March 1999.
26. Davis, R. F., Nam, O.-H., Zheleva, T.S., Gehrke, T., Linthicum, K.J., and Rajagopal, P., Materials Science Forum, Vols. 338–342, 1471 (2000).
27. Kong, H.S., Edmond, J., Doverspike, K., Emerson, D., Bulman, G., Haberern, K., Dieringer, H., and Slater, D., Materials Science Forum, 338–342, 1477 (2000).
28. Fini, P., Marchand, H., Ibbetson, J.P., Moran, B., Zhao, L., DenBaars, S.P., Speck, J.P., and Mishra, U., Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 572, 315 (1999).
29. Kidoguchi, I., Ishibashi, A., Sugahara, G., and Ban, Y., Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, (25), 3768 (2000).
30. Detchprom, T., Yano, M., Sano, S., Nakamura, R., Mochiduki, S., Nakamura, T., Amano, H., Akasaki, I., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, Pt.2, No.1A/B, L16 (2001).
31. Stritmatter, A., Rodt, S., Reiâmann, L., Bimberg, D., Schroder, H., Obermeyer, T., Riemann, T., Christen, J., Krost, A., Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 (6), 727 (2001).
32. Osipyan, Y.A. and Smirnova, I.S., phys.stat.sol. 30, 19 (1968).
33. Hirth, J. and Lothe, J., Theory of Dislocations, (John Wily and Sons, New York, 1982).
34. Romano, L. Ch. A7.3 in Properties, Processing and Applications of Gallium Nitride and Related Semiconductors, (Ed. By Edgar, J. H., Strite, S., Akasaki, I., Amano, H. and Wetzel, C., INSPEC, London, 1999).
35. Mathis, S.K., Romanov, A.E., Chen, L.F., Beltz, G.E., Pompe, W., and Speck, J. S., phys. stat. sol. (a) 179, 125 (2000).
36. Chien, F.R., Ning, X.J., Stemmer, S., Pirouz, P., Bremser, M.D., Davis, R.F., Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2678 (1996).
37. Ning, X.J., Chien, F.R., Pirouz, P., Yang, J.W., Khan, M. Asif, J. Mater. Res. 11 (3) 580 (1996).
38. Romano, L.T., Krusor, B.S., Molnar, R.J., Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2283 (1997).
39. Liliental-Weber, Z., Washburn, J., Pakula, K., Baranovski, J., Microscopy and Microanalysis, the J. of the Electr. Microsc. Soc. of America, 3, 436 (1997).
40. Rouviere, J.L., Arlery, M., Niebuhr, R., Bachem, K. H., Briot, O., Mat. Sci. and Eng. B 43, 161 (1997).
41. Albrecht, M., Nikitina, I.P., Nikolaev, A.E., Melnik, Yu. V., Dmitriev, V.A., and Strunk, H.P., phys. stat. sol. (a) 176, 453 (1999).
42. Kato, Y., Kitamura, S., Hiramatsu, K., and Sawaki, N., J. Cryst. Growth, 144, 133 (1994).
43. Chen, Y., Schneider, R., Wang, S.Y., Kern, R.S., Chen, C.H., Kuo, C.P., Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2062 (1999).
44. Ashby, C., Mitchell, C., Han, J., Missert, N., Provencio, P., Follstaedt, D., Peake, G., and Griego, L., Appl. Phys. Lett. 77 (20), 3233 (2000).
45. Coltrin, M.E., Willan, C.C., Bartram, M.E., Han, J., Missert, N., Crawford, M.H., Baca, A.G., MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4 U602 (1999).
46. Mitchell, C., Coltrin, M., and Han, J., J. Cryst. Growth, 222, 144 (2001).
47. Coltrin, M., Mitchell, C., and Han, J., Electrochemical Society Proceedings Volume 2001–1, 1 (2001).
48. Fini, P., Munkholm, A., Thompson, C., Stevenson, G.B., Eastman, J.A., Murty, M.V.R., Auciello, O., Zhao, L., denBaars, S.P., Speck, J.S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 (26), 3893 (2000).
49. Hearne, S., Chason, E., Han, J., Floro, J.A., Figiel, J., Hunter, J., Amano, H., Tsong, I.S.T., Appl. Phys. Lett. 74 (3), 356 (1999).
50. Gehrke, T., Linthicum, K., Preble, E., Rajagopal, P., Ronning, C., Zorman, C., Mechregany, M., and Davis, R.F., J. Electr. Mater. 29 (3), 306 (2000).
51. Chu, S.N.G., Macrander, A.T., Strege, K.E., and Johnston, W. D. Jr, J.Appl. Phys. 57 (2), 249 (1985) and the references therein.
52. Suzuki, K., Ichihara, M., and Takeuchi, S., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1, 33, 1114 (1994).
53. Jones, K.A., Derenge, M.A., Zheleva, T.S., Kirchner, K.W., Ervin, M.H., Wood, M.C., Vispute, R.D., Sharma, R.P., and Venkatesan, T., J. Electr. Mater. 29 (3), 262 (2000).
54. Vispute, R.D., Patel, A., Sharma, R.P., Venkatesan, T., Zheleva, T., and Jones, K.A., Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 587, 07.4.1 (2000).
55. Fan, Z.Y., Rong, G., Newman, N., and Smith, D., Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 (14), 1839 (2000).
56. Vispute, R.D., Wu, H., and Narayan, J., Appl. Phys. Lett. 67 (11), 1549 (1995).
57. Ponce, F.A., Walle, C.G. Van de, and Northrup, J.E., Phys. Rev. B, 53 (11), 7473 (1996).
58. Dovidenko, K., Oktyabrsky, S., Narayan, J., Razeghi, M., J. Appl. Phys. 79 (5), 2439 (1996).
59. Dovidenko, K., Oktyabrsky, S., Narayan, J., J. Appl. Phys. 82 (9), 4296 (1997).
60. Vermaut, P., Ruterana, P., Nouet, G., and Morkoc, H., Philos. Mag.A 63, 239 (1997).
61. Humfreys, F.J. and Hatherly, M., Recrystallization and Related Annealing Phenomena, (Elsevier Science Ltd. 1995).
62.ANSYS Finite Element Analysis, Release 5.6, Swanson Analysis System, Inc. 1999.
63. Zheleva, T., Ashmawi, W., Nam, O.-H., and Davis, R.F., Appl. Phys. Lett. 74 (17), 2492 (1999).
64. Feng, Z., Lovell, E.G., Engelstad, R.L., Dunn, K.A., Babcock, S.E., Kuech, T.F., MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. (2000-2001).
65. Strunk, H.P. (private communication, 2000).
66. Harris, G.L. (Ed.), Properties of SiC, (EMIS Data Review Series, London, 1993).
67. Edgar, J.H. (Ed.) Properties of Group III Nitrides, (EMIS Data Review Series, London 1994).
68. Kim, K., Lambrecht, W., and Segal, B., Phys. Rev. B 53, 16310 (1996).
69. Martin, R., Phys. Rev. B 6 (12), 4546 (1972).
70. Wright, A., J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2833 (1997).
71. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 72nd ed., ed. Lide, D. (Chemical Rubber Corp., Boca Raton, Fl 1991-1992).

Approaches For Reduction Of The Defect Density In Group III Nitride Based Heterostructures

  • T. S. Zheleva (a1) (a2), F. Karoui (a2), K. Kirchner (a1), M. Derenge (a1), K. A. Jones (a1), R. D. Vispute (a3) and T. Venkatesan (a3)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed