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Structural Effects of Transition Metal Oxide Calcinations on Wurtzite Type Semiconductors That are Ferromagnetic at Room Temperature

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 February 2011

Peter Moeck
Affiliation:
pmoeck@pdx.edu, Portland State University, Physics, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207-0751, Portland, OR, 97201, United States
Lori Noice
Affiliation:
noice@pdx.edu, Portland State University, Portland, OR, 97201, United States
Chunfei Li
Affiliation:
chunfei@pdx.edu, Portland State University, Portland, OR, 97201, United States
Amita Gupta
Affiliation:
amitag@kth.se, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 100 44, Sweden
Rolf Erni
Affiliation:
rolf.erni@ua.ac.be, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, United States
Nigel D. Browning
Affiliation:
browning20@llnl.gov, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, United States
K.V. Rao
Affiliation:
rao@kth.se, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 100 44, Sweden
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Abstract

Gallium nitride powders and zinc oxide powders were each calcined with a few weight percent of copper oxide and/or magnesium oxide either in air or N2. Powder X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy were performed in order to observe calcination induced structural effects on these wurtzite type semiconductors. We note that our earlier magnetic results on Cu doped GaN are qualitatively consistent with recent first principle calculations [Wu et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 (2006) 62505].

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2007

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References

1. Dietl, T. et al. , Science 287 (2000) 1019 as well as T. Dietl and H. Ohno, Materials Today 9 (2006) 18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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7.Employing the computer programs SIGMAL3 and SIGMAK3 (by Egerton, R.F., Electron energy-loss spectroscopy in the electron microscope, Plenum Press, 1996, pp. 485), the partial inelastic cross-section of the Cu L-excitation was calculated to amount to 0.016 pm2 (for a collection angle of 3 mrad and an energy window of 60 eV). Because the simulated partial inelastic cross-section of the O K and N K-excitations are by larger a factor 2.4 and 5.2 than the Cu-L cross section, we assume that a small amount of Cu (in oxidized states with partly filled 3d sub-shells) could be present in our samples without resulting in clearly distinguishable L2,3 “white lines” in the EELS.Google Scholar
8.These simulations employed the WebEMAPS software, developed by J.M. Zuo and J.C. Mabon, University of Illinois at Urbana – Champaign, and openly accessible at URL: http://emaps.mrl.uiuc.edu/.Google Scholar
9. Hovmöller, S., CRISP: crystallographic image processing on a personal computer, Ultramicroscopy 41 (1992) 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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Structural Effects of Transition Metal Oxide Calcinations on Wurtzite Type Semiconductors That are Ferromagnetic at Room Temperature
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