Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-d5zgf Total loading time: 0.236 Render date: 2021-03-03T15:39:39.409Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Nonlinear Optics in Silicon Wire Waveguides: Towards Integrated Long Wavelength Light Sources

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  30 July 2012

Bart Kuyken
Affiliation:
Photonics Research Group, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. Center for Nano- and Biophotonics (NB-Photonics), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
Xiaoping Liu
Affiliation:
Microelectronics Sciences Laboratories, Columbia University, New York City, NY, United States.
Richard M. Osgood
Affiliation:
Microelectronics Sciences Laboratories, Columbia University, New York City, NY, United States.
Roel Baets
Affiliation:
Photonics Research Group, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. Center for Nano- and Biophotonics (NB-Photonics), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
Gunther Roelkens
Affiliation:
Photonics Research Group, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. Center for Nano- and Biophotonics (NB-Photonics), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
William M. Green
Affiliation:
IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, United States.
Get access

Abstract

Most of the research on silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits has been focused on applications for telecommunication. By using the large refractive index of silicon, compact complex photonic functions have been integrated on a silicon chip. However, the transparency of silicon up to 8.5 μm enables the use of the platform for the mid infrared wavelength region, albeit limited by the absorption in silicon oxide from 4 μm on. This could lead to a whole new set of integrated photonics circuits for sensing, given the distinct absorption bands of many molecules in this wavelength region. These long wavelength integrated photonic circuits would preferably need broadband or widely tunable sources to probe these absorption bands.

We propose the use of nonlinear optics in silicon wire waveguides to generate light in this wavelength range. Nonlinear interactions in just a few cm of silicon wire waveguides can be very efficient as a result of both the high nonlinear index of silicon and the high optical confinement obtained in these waveguides. We demonstrate the generation of a supercontinuum spanning from 1.53 μm up to 2.55 μm in a 2 cm dispersion engineered silicon nanowire waveguide by pumping the waveguide with strong picoseconds pulses at 2.12 μm [1]. Furthermore we demonstrate broadband nonlinear optical amplification in the mid infrared up to 50 dB [2] in these silicon waveguides. By using this broadband parametric gain a silicon-based synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is constructed [3]. This OPO is tunable over 70 nm around a central wavelength of 2080 nm.

Finally, we also demonstrate the use of higher order dispersion terms to get phase matching between optical signals at very different optical frequencies in silicon wire waveguides. In this way we demonstrate conversion of signals at 2.44 μm to the telecommunication band with efficiencies up to +19.5 dB [4]. One particularly attractive application of such wide conversion is the possibility of converting weak signals in the mid-IR to the telecom window after which they can be detected by a high-sensitivity telecom-band optical receiver.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

[1] Kuyken, B. et al. ., “Mid-infrared to telecom-band supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear silicon-oninsulator wire waveguides”, Optics Express, 19, p. 2017220181, (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[2] Kuyken, B. et al. ., “50 dB Parametric Gain in Silicon Photonic Wires”, Optics Letters 36, p.44014403, (2011).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
[3] Kuyken, B. et al. ., “Widely Tunable Silicon Mid-Infrared Optical Parametric Oscillator”, Group IV Photonics, (2011).Google Scholar
[4] Kuyken, B. et al. ., “Frequency conversion of mid-infrared optical signals into the telecom band using nonlinear silicon nanophotonic wires”, OFC, (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[5] Soref, R. et al. ., “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region”, J. opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, p.840 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[6] Li, F. et al. ., “Low propagation loss silicon-on-sapphire waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19, 1521215220 (2011) .CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
[7] Mashanovich, G. Z. et al. ., “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19, 71127119 (2011).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
[8] Koos, C. et al. ., “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 15, 59765990 (2007).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
[9] Turner, A. C. et al. ., “Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides,” Opt. Express 14, 43574362 (2006).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
[10] Dulkeith, E. et al. ., “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14, pp. 38533863, (2006).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
[11] Ophir, N. et al. ., “Continuous wavelength conversion of 40-Gb/s Data Over 100 nm using a dispersion-engineered silicon waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 7375 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[12] Hsieh, I, et al. ., “Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Express 15, 1524215249 (2007) .CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
[13] Foster, M. A. et al. ., “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chipNature 441, 960 (2006).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
[14] Bristow, A. D. et al. ., “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Applied Physics Letters 90, 191104191106 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[15] Xiaoping Liu, , et al. . “Self-phase modulation and nonlinear loss in silicon nanophotonic wires near the mid-infrared two-photon absorption edge,” Opt. Express 19, 77787789 (2011)Google Scholar
[16] Agrawal, G. P., Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nded. (Academic, 2007).Google Scholar
[17] Leo, F. et al. ., “Passive SOI devices for the short-wave infrared”, ECIO, (2012)Google Scholar
[18] Liu, X. et al. .,”Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides. Nature Photonics 4, 557560 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[19] Akhmediev, N. et al. ., “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 26022607 (1995).CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 9 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 3rd March 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Nonlinear Optics in Silicon Wire Waveguides: Towards Integrated Long Wavelength Light Sources
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Nonlinear Optics in Silicon Wire Waveguides: Towards Integrated Long Wavelength Light Sources
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Nonlinear Optics in Silicon Wire Waveguides: Towards Integrated Long Wavelength Light Sources
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *