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Microchemical Studies of Tuyeres and Refractory Materials used by Phoenicians and Punics at Tharros (Sardinia, Italy)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 February 2011


G.M. Ingo
Affiliation:
C.N.R. - ICMAT, CP 10, 00016 Monterotondo Stazione (Italy)
E. Acquaro
Affiliation:
C.N.R. - ICFP, CP 10, 00016 Monterotondo Stazione (Italy)
L-I. Manfred
Affiliation:
C.N.R. - ICFP, CP 10, 00016 Monterotondo Stazione (Italy)
G. Bultrini
Affiliation:
C.N.R. - ICFP, CP 10, 00016 Monterotondo Stazione (Italy)
G. Chiozzini
Affiliation:
C.N.R. - ICMAT, CP 10, 00016 Monterotondo Stazione (Italy)
C. Veroli
Affiliation:
C.N.R. - ICMAT, CP 10, 00016 Monterotondo Stazione (Italy)

Abstract

A large amount of smelting slags, tuyeres and curved refractory materials used during pyrometallurgical activities have been found at Tharros (western-Sardinia, Italy) during an excavation stratigraphically related to the Phoenician-Punic period (VI-IV BC). The microchemical structure of the vitrified end of tuyeres and of the thick fragments of the smelting furnaces, has been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). The results indicate that these materials can be associated with an iron smelting process. Furthermore, the temperature and duration of the smelting process has been estimated from the study of vitrification process and penetration depth of vitrification of the tips of some tuyeres combined with the study of pieces of clay taken from a unverified fragment of a tuyere and subjected to different thermal treatments under reducing atmosphere.


Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 1997

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References

[1] Ingo, G.M., Acquaro, E., Bernardini, P., Bultrini, G., Frantisi, M.T., Manfredi, L-I., Scoppio, L., Padeletti, G. and Petruccioli, G., Proceedings of the XI Conference “L'Africa Romana, Cartagine 15–18 December 1994, in press.Google Scholar
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