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Impact of Crystalline Orientation on the Switching Field in Barium Titanate Using Piezoresponse Force Spectroscopy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 April 2014

Nikhil K. Ponon
Affiliation:
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, United Kingdom
Daniel J. R. Appleby
Affiliation:
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, United Kingdom
Erhan Arac
Affiliation:
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, United Kingdom
Kelvin S. K. Kwa
Affiliation:
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, United Kingdom
Jonathan P. Goss
Affiliation:
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, United Kingdom
Ullrich Hannemann
Affiliation:
Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
Peter K. Petrov
Affiliation:
Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
Neil M. Alford
Affiliation:
Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
Anthony O’Neill
Affiliation:
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, United Kingdom
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Abstract

Understanding crystal orientation at the ferroelectric domain level, using a non destructive technique, is crucial for the design and characterization of nano-scale devices. In this study, piezoresponse force spectroscopy (PFS) is used to identify ferroelectric domain orientation. The impact of crystal orientation on the switching field of ferroelectric BaTiO3 is also investigated at the domain level. The preferential domain orientations for BaTiO3 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in this study are [001], [101] and [111]. They have been mapped onto PFS spectra to show three corresponding switching fields of 460, 330 and 120 kV/cm respectively. In addition, the electric field at which the enhanced piezoresponse occurs was found to vary, due to a phase change. The polarization reversal occurs via a 2-step process (rotation and switching) for [101] and [111] orientations. The piezoresponse enhancement is absent for the [001] (pure switching) domains. The results demonstrate that an electric field induced phase change causes the [101] and [111] domains to reverse polarization at a lower field than the [001] domain.

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Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2014 

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References

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Impact of Crystalline Orientation on the Switching Field in Barium Titanate Using Piezoresponse Force Spectroscopy
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