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High Efficiency Copper Indium Gallium DiSelenide (CIGS) by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS): A Promising and Scalable Application in Thin-film Photovoltaics

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 January 2011

Ankush Halbe
Affiliation:
ankushhalbe@gmail.com, DayStar Technologies Inc, Santa Clara, United States
Paul Johnson
Affiliation:
pjohnson@daystartech.com, DayStar Technologies Inc, Santa Clara, United States
Shen Jackson
Affiliation:
sjackson@daystartech.com, DayStar Technologies Inc, Santa Clara, United States
Robert Weiss
Affiliation:
bweiss@daystartech.com, DayStar Technologies Inc, Santa Clara, United States
Upendra Avachat
Affiliation:
uavachat@daystartech.com, DayStar Technologies Inc, Santa Clara, United States
Alex Welsh
Affiliation:
Awelsh@daystartech.com, DayStar Technologies Inc, Santa Clara, United States
Arutiun P. Ehiasarian
Affiliation:
a.ehiasarian@shu.ac.uk, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom
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Abstract

A novel method to deposit Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS) using High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) was demonstrated and compared to the existing DC magnetron sputtering process. The metal-ion assisted thin-film growth inherent to a HIPIMS deposition process was used to advantage in depositing CIGS films. The HIPIMS plasma was characterized by measuring ion currents on a Langmuir probe placed into the plasma sufficiently close to the substrate. The high density plasma consisting of both metal and metal ions resulted in CIGS thin-film solar cells of superior conversion efficiencies (˜13%) as compared to conventional DC magnetron sputtering (˜10%). The efficiency enhancement was attributed to the improvement in the shunt resistance of the solar cell which corresponds to the increase in the density of the CIGS layer. Furthermore, it was also possible to grow large grained CIGS (˜1 micron) with high mobility metal-ions from the HIPIMS process. The scalability potential of the HIPIMS CIGS process was also demonstrated by running a 1.5 m long Copper-Indium-Gallium rotatable in a selenium environment using a HIPIMS power supply. The cylindrical magnetron was run at an average power of 7.8 KW and peak powers of as much as 300 KW with controlled arcing. The existence of a HIPIMS plasma was confirmed by the ion currents on the Langmuir probe and the metal signals from a Plasma Emission Monitor (PEM).

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2010

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High Efficiency Copper Indium Gallium DiSelenide (CIGS) by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS): A Promising and Scalable Application in Thin-film Photovoltaics
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High Efficiency Copper Indium Gallium DiSelenide (CIGS) by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS): A Promising and Scalable Application in Thin-film Photovoltaics
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High Efficiency Copper Indium Gallium DiSelenide (CIGS) by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS): A Promising and Scalable Application in Thin-film Photovoltaics
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