Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

TiO2 hollow nanospheres functionalized with folic acid and ZnPc for targeted photodynamic therapy in glioblastoma cancer

  • Minerva Uribe-Robles (a1) (a2), Emma Ortiz-Islas (a3), Ekaterina Rodriguez-Perez (a4), Taehoon Lim (a2) and Alfredo A. Martinez-Morales (a1) (a2)...

Abstract

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive types of cancer which currently does not have a cure. Its invasive nature and heterogeneity makes its complete surgical removal impossible. Hence, a targeted treatment is critically needed to effectively eradicate this cancer. In this work, the authors report the synthesis of hollow TiO2 nanospheres (HTiO2NS) and their functionalization with folic acid (FA) and zinc (II) tetranitrophthalocyanine (ZnPc) to achieve cell selectivity and light absorption in the visible range. In vitro cytotoxicity of the functionalized HTiO2NS against M059K cell line (Human GBM cancer cells) was tested. In vitro generation of reactive oxygen species by HTiO2NS–FA–ZnPc nanostructures under UV irradiation was detected by fluorescence probing. To identify HTiO2NS–FA–ZnPc cell localization, the nanoparticles were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate dye and visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Results illustrate that HTiO2NS–FA–ZnPc nanostructures have the potential to be used for targeted photodynamic therapy for the treatment of GBM cancer.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      TiO2 hollow nanospheres functionalized with folic acid and ZnPc for targeted photodynamic therapy in glioblastoma cancer
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      TiO2 hollow nanospheres functionalized with folic acid and ZnPc for targeted photodynamic therapy in glioblastoma cancer
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      TiO2 hollow nanospheres functionalized with folic acid and ZnPc for targeted photodynamic therapy in glioblastoma cancer
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address all correspondence to Alfredo A. Martinez-Morales at alfmart@ece.ucr.edu

References

Hide All
1.Wen, P.Y. and Kesari, S.: Malignant gliomas in adults. N. Engl. J. Med. 359, 492507 (2008).
2.Dolmans, D.E., Fukumura, D., and Jain, R.K.: Photodynamic therapy for cancer. Nat. Rev. Cancer 3, 380387 (2003).
3.Dougherty, T.J., Gomer, C.J., Henderson, B.W., Jori, G., Kessel, D., Korbelik, M., Moan, J., and Peng, Q.: Photodynamic therapy. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889905 (1998).
4.Dąbrowski, J.M. and Arnaut, L.G.: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer: from local to systemic treatment. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 14, 17651780 (2015).
5.Tachikawa, T., Fujitsuka, M., and Majima, T.: Mechanistic insight into the TiO2 photocatalytic reactions: design of new photocatalysts. J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 52595275 (2007).
6.Chawengkijwanich, C. and Hayata, Y.: Development of TiO2 powder-coated food packaging film and its ability to inactivate Escherichia coli in vitro and in actual tests. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 123, 288292 (2008).
7.Yin, Z.F., Wu, L., Yang, H.G., and Su, Y.H.: Recent progress in biomedical applications of titanium dioxide. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 48444858 (2013).
8.Kulkarni, M., Mazare, A., Gongadze, E., Perutkova, Š, Kralj-Iglič, V., Milošev, I., Schmuki, P., Iglič, A., and Mozetič, M.: Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications. Nanotechnology 26, 062002 (2015).
9.Cai, R., Kubota, Y., Shuin, T., Sakai, H., Hashimoto, K., and Fujishima, A.: Induction of cytotoxicity by photoexcited TiO2 particles. Cancer Res. 52, 23462348 (1992).
10.Yang, G., Yang, D., Yang, P., Lv, R., Li, C., Zhong, C., He, F., Gai, S., and Lin, J.: A single 808 nm near-infrared light-mediated multiple imaging and photodynamic therapy based on titania coupled upconversion nanoparticles. Chem. Mater. 27, 79577968 (2015).
11.Chen, X. and Mao, S.S.: Titanium dioxide nanomaterials: synthesis, properties, modifications, and applications. Chem. Rev. 107, 28912959 (2007).
12.Imani, R., Dillert, R., Bahnemann, D.W., Pazoki, M., Apih, T., Kononenko, V., and Iglič, A.: Multifunctional gadolinium-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanobeads: photoluminescence, enhanced spin relaxation, and reactive oxygen species photogeneration, beneficial for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Small 13, 1700349 (2017).
13.Schneider, J., Matsuoka, M., Takeuchi, M., Zhang, J., Horiuchi, Y., Anpo, M., and Bahnemann, D.W.: Understanding TiO2 photocatalysis: mechanisms and materials. Chem. Rev. 114, 99199986 (2014).
14.Ji, Z., Jin, X., George, S., Xia, T., Meng, H., Wang, X., and Zink, J.I.: Dispersion and stability optimization of TiO2 nanoparticles in cell culture media. Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, 73097314 (2010).
15.Leshuk, T., Linley, S., Baxter, G., and Gu, F.: Mesoporous hollow sphere titanium dioxide photocatalysts through hydrothermal silica etching. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4, 60626070 (2012).
16.Yu, K., Ling, M., Liang, J., and Liang, C.: Formation of TiO2 hollow spheres through nanoscale Kirkendall effect and their lithium storage and photocatalytic properties. Chem. Phys. 517, 222227 (2019).
17.Liu, D. and Bi, Y.-G.: Controllable fabrication of hollow TiO2 spheres as sustained release drug carrier. Adv. Powder Technol. 30, 21692177 (2019).
18.Assaraf, Y.G., Leamon, C.P., and Reddy, J.A.: The folate receptor as a rational therapeutic target for personalized cancer treatment. Drug Resist. Updat. 17, 8995 (2014).
19.Lamch, Ł., Kulbacka, J., Dubińska-Magiera, M., Saczko, J., and Wilk, K.A.: Folate-directed zinc (II) phthalocyanine loaded polymeric micelles engineered to generate reactive oxygen species for efficacious photodynamic therapy of cancer. Photodiagnosis Photodyn. Ther. 25, 480491 (2019).
20.Feng, L., Wang, C., Li, C., Gai, S., He, F., Li, R., An, G., Zhong, C., Dai, Y., Yang, Z., and Yang, P.: Multifunctional theranostic nanoplatform based on Fe-mTa2O5@CuS-ZnPc/PCM for bimodal imaging and synergistically enhanced phototherapy. Inorg. Chem. 57, 48644876 (2018).
21.Li, X., Zheng, B.-D., Peng, X.-H., Li, S.-Z., Ying, J.-W., Zhao, Y., Huang, J.-D., and Yoon, J.: Phthalocyanines as medicinal photosensitizers: developments in the last five years. Coord. Chem. Rev. 379, 147160 (2019).
22.Wang, Z., Gai, S., Wang, C., Yang, G., Zhong, C., Dai, Y., He, F., Yang, D., and Yang, P.: Self-assembled zinc phthalocyanine nanoparticles as excellent photothermal/photodynamic synergistic agent for antitumor treatment. Chem. Eng. J. 361, 117128 (2019).
23.Lopez, T., Ortiz, E., Alvarez, M., Navarrete, J., Odriozola, J.A., Martinez-Ortega, F., Páez-Mozo, E.A., Escobar, P., Espinoza, K.A., and Rivero, I.A.: Study of the stabilization of zinc phthalocyanine in sol-gel TiO2 for photodynamic therapy applications. Nanomedicine 6, 777785 (2010).
24.Shin, Y., Wang, L., Bae, I., Arey, B.W., and Exarhos, G.J.: Hydrothermal syntheses of colloidal carbon spheres from cyclodextrins. J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 1423614240 (2008).
25.Réti, B., Kiss, G.I., Gyulavári, T., Baan, K., Magyari, K., and Hernadi, K.: Carbon sphere templates for TiO2 hollow structures: preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity. Catal. Today 284, 160168 (2017).
26.Kalita, H., Konar, S., Tantubay, S., Mahto, M.K., and Pathak, A.: Phase transformation in Mn-doped titania hollow spheres and their biocompatibility studies. Appl. Nanosci. 5, 901910 (2015).
27.Flak, D., Yate, L., Nowaczyk, G., and Jurga, S.: Hybrid ZnPc@TiO2 nanostructures for targeted photodynamic therapy, bioimaging and doxorubicin delivery. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 78, 10721085 (2017).
28.van Meerloo, J., Kaspers, G.J.L., and Cloos, J.: Cell sensitivity assays: the MTT assay. Methods Mol. Biol. 731, 237245 (2011).
29.Luttrell, T., Halpegamage, S., Tao, J., Kramer, A., Sutter, E., and Batzill, M.: Why is anatase a better photocatalyst than rutile? - Model studies on epitaxial TiO2 films. Sci. Rep. 4, 4043 (2014).
30.Zhang, J., Rana, S., Srivastava, R.S., and Misra, R.D.K.: On the chemical synthesis and drug delivery response of folate receptor-activated, polyethylene glycol-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles. Acta Biomater. 4, 4048 (2008).
31.Shimizu, S. and Kobayashi, N.: Recent advances in the chemistry of phthalocyanines as functional chromophores. In Chemical Science of π-Electron Systems, edited by Akasaka, T., Osuka, A., Fukuzumi, S., Kandori, H., and Aso, Y. (Springer, Tokyo, 2015) pp. 273291.
32.Machado, A.E.H., França, M.D., Velani, V., Magnino, G.A., Velani, H.M.M., Freitas, F.S., Müller, P.S. Jr., Sattler, C., and Schmücker, M.: Characterization and evaluation of the efficiency of TiO2/zinc phthalocyanine nanocomposites as photocatalysts for wastewater treatment using solar irradiation. Int. J. Photoenergy 2008, 482373 (2008).
Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Uribe-Robles et al. supplementary material
Uribe-Robles et al. supplementary material 1

 Unknown (225 KB)
225 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Uribe-Robles et al. supplementary material
Uribe-Robles et al. supplementary material 2

 Unknown (199 KB)
199 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Uribe-Robles et al. supplementary material
Uribe-Robles et al. supplementary material 3

 Unknown (574 KB)
574 KB

TiO2 hollow nanospheres functionalized with folic acid and ZnPc for targeted photodynamic therapy in glioblastoma cancer

  • Minerva Uribe-Robles (a1) (a2), Emma Ortiz-Islas (a3), Ekaterina Rodriguez-Perez (a4), Taehoon Lim (a2) and Alfredo A. Martinez-Morales (a1) (a2)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed