Skip to main content Accessibility help

Improving ambient stability of BiI3-based perovskites using different phosphoniums as the organic cation

  • Diana F. Garcia-Gutierrez (a1) (a2) (a3), Domingo I. Garcia-Gutierrez (a2), Diego González-Quijano (a1) (a3), Itzel A. Abarca-Villarreal (a1), Sofia F. Galindo-Garza (a1) and Eduardo M. Sanchez (a1) (a3)...


Perovskites solar cells have reached impressive efficiencies (22%) in recent years. Because certain environmental concerns are raised by the use of lead halides, there is an interest to seek out lead-free alternatives, featuring bismuth or antimony. Alongside, one of the major drawbacks displayed by MAPbI3 is their low stability at ambient conditions. In this work, (RP4)xBiyIz were synthesized, using different types of tetra-alkylphosphoniums (R4PI) were R = ethyl, butyl, hexyl, and octyl, to assess their stability. Afterwards, they were characterized to study their morphology and crystal structure, as well as their optical properties.


Corresponding author

Address all correspondence to Eduardo M. Sanchez at


Hide All
2.Colella, S., Mosconi, E., Fedeli, P., Listorti, A., Gazza, F., Orlandi, F., Ferro, P., Besagni, T., Rizzo, A., Calestani, G., Gigli, G., De Angelis, F., and Mosca, R.: MAPbI3––x Cl x mixed halide perovskite for hybrid solar cells: the role of chloride as dopant on the transport and structural properties. Chem. Mater. 25, 4613 (2013).
3.Hodes, G.: Perovskite-based solar cells. Science 342, 317 (2013).
4.Snaith, H.J.: Perovskites: the emergence of a new era for low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 36233630 (2013).
5.Song, T., Chen, Q., Zhou, H.H.-P., Jiang, C., Wang, H.-H., Yang, Y. (Michael), Liu, Y., You, J., Yang, Y., Liu, Y., You, J., Yang, Y. (Michael), Liu, Y., You, J., and Yang, Y.: Perovskite solar cells: film formation and properties. J. Mater. Chem. A 3, 9032 (2015).
6.Zhang, X., Ren, X., Liu, B., Munir, R., Zhu, X., Yang, D., Li, J., Liu, Y., Smilgies, D., Li, R., Yang, Z., Niu, T., Wang, X., Amassian, A., Zhao, K., and Liu, S.F.: Stable high efficiency two-dimensional perovskite solar cells via cesium doping. Energy Environ. Sci. 10, 2095 (2017).
7.Tan, H., Jain, A., Voznyy, O., Lan, X., García de Arquer, F.P., Fan, J.Z., Quintero-Bermudez, R., Yuan, M., Zhang, B., Zhao, Y., Fan, F., Li, P., Quan, L.N., Zhao, Y., Lu, Z.-H., Yang, Z., Hoogland, S., and Sargent, E.H.: Efficient and stable solution-processed planar perovskite solar cells via contact passivation. Science 355, 722 (2017).
8.Wang, Z., Lin, Q., Chmiel, F.P., Sakai, N., Herz, L.M., and Snaith, H.J.: Efficient ambient-air-stable solar cells with 2D–3D heterostructured butylammonium-caesium-formamidinium lead halide perovskites. Nat. Energy 6, 17135 (2017).
9.Mitzi, D.B.: Organic–inorganic perovskites containing trivalent metal halide layers: the templating influence of the organic cation layer. Inorg. Chem. 39, 6107 (2000).
10.Mitzi, D.B. and Brock, P.: Structure and optical properties of several organic–inorganic hybrids containing corner-sharing chains of bismuth iodide octahedra. Inorg. Chem. 40, 2096 (2001).
11.Hamdeh, U.H., Nelson, R.D., Ryan, B.J., Bhattacharjee, U., Petrich, J.W., and Panthani, M.G.: Solution-processed BiI3 thin films for photovoltaic applications: improved carrier collection via solvent annealing. Chem. Mater. 28, 6567 (2016).
12.Ramírez, R.E. and Sánchez, E.M.: Molten phosphonium iodides as electrolytes in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 2384 (2006).
13.Del Sesto, R.E., Corley, C., Robertson, A., and Wilkes, J.S.: Tetraalkylphosphonium-based ionic liquids. J. Organomet. Chem. 690, 2536 (2005).
14.Ramírez, R.E., Torres-González, L.C., and Sánchez, E.M.: Electrochemical aspects of asymmetric phosphonium ionic liquids. J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, B229 (2007).
15.Fraser, K.J. and MacFarlane, D.R.: Phosphonium-based ionic liquids: an overview. Aust. J. Chem. 62, 309 (2009).
16.Ramírez-Garcia, R.E. and Sánchez-Cervantes, E.M.: Desarrollo de nuevos electrolitos con potencial uso en celdas solares nanocristalinas. Cien. UANL X, 400 (2007).
17.Ramírez, R.E., Torres-González, L.C., Hernández, A., García, A., and Sánchez, E.M.: Conductivity and viscosity behavior of asymmetric phosphonium iodides. J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 4271 (2010).
18.Banerjee, A., Theron, R., and Scott, R.W.J.: Highly stable noble-metal nanoparticles in tetraalkylphosphonium ionic liquids for in situ catalysis. ChemSusChem 5, 109 (2012).
19.Mostafa, M.F., Atallah, A.S., and Elessawi, M.: Preparation and characterization of a new series of perovskite-like structures showing evidence of structural transitions: (methyltriphenylphosphonium)2BX4, B = Mn, Co, Cu, and Hg, and X = CI/I. Phase Transit. 64, 215 (1998).
20.Mostafa, M.F. and Atallah, A.S.: Permittivity and ac conductivity study of the layered perovskite [(CH3) (C6H5)3P]2MnCl4 showing evidence of phase transition. Phys. Lett. A 264, 242 (1999).
21.Schluter, M., Cohen, M.L., Kohn, S.E., and Fong, C.Y.: Electronic structure of BiI3. Phys. Status Solidi B 78, 737 (1976).
22.Coates, J.: Interpretation of infrared spectra, a practical approach. Encycl. Anal. Chem. 12, 10815 (2000).
24.Skoog, D.A., James Holler, F., and Nieman, T. A.: Principios de análisis instrumental, 5ta Edición (McGraw Hill, Madrid, 2001), p. 409.
25.Clegg, W., Errington, R.J., Fisher, G.A., Green, M.E., Hockless, D.C.R., and Norman, N.C.: A phosphine complex of bismuth(III): X-ray crystal structure of [PMe3H] [Bi2Br7(PMe3)2]. Chem. Ber. 124, 2457 (1991).
26.Altomare, A., Cuocci, C., Giacovazzo, C., Moliterni, A., Rizzi, R., Corriero, N., and Falcicchio, A.: EXPO2013: a kit of tools for phasing crystal structures from powder data. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 46, 1231 (2013).
27.Winn, D. and Doherty, M.F.: Modeling crystal shapes of organic materials grown from solution. AlChE J. 46, 1348 (2000).

Improving ambient stability of BiI3-based perovskites using different phosphoniums as the organic cation

  • Diana F. Garcia-Gutierrez (a1) (a2) (a3), Domingo I. Garcia-Gutierrez (a2), Diego González-Quijano (a1) (a3), Itzel A. Abarca-Villarreal (a1), Sofia F. Galindo-Garza (a1) and Eduardo M. Sanchez (a1) (a3)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed