Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Characteristics of nickel thin films prepared by electroless plating in foam of electrolyte

  • Takahiro Furuhashi (a1), Yoshiyasu Yamada (a1), Masato Hayashi (a2), Shoji Ichihara (a2) and Hiroaki Usui (a2)...

Abstract

Nickel thin films were prepared by electroless plating in a foam of electrolyte that was generated by bubbling nitrogen gas into a hypophosphite-based electroless plating solution to which was added a surfactant of sulfuric acid monododecyl ester sodium salt. Although the film growth rate in the foam was considerably lower than that in the conventional liquid, film growth was enhanced by inducing a flow in the foam. Compared with films deposited in liquid, the films deposited in foam had a smaller number of pinholes, smaller crystallite size, and superior corrosion resistance. The ferroxyl indicator test showed that the area of corrosion can be reduced to less than 1/20 by depositing the film in foam instead of liquid.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address all correspondence to Hiroaki Usui at h_usui@cc.tuat.ac.jp

References

Hide All
1. Tsai, W.L., Hsu, P.C., Hwu, Y., Chen, C.H., Chang, L.W., Je, J.H., Lin, H.M., Groso, A., and Margaritondo, G.: Electrochemistry: building on bubbles in metal electrodeposition. Nature 417, 139 (2002).
2. Hsu, P.C., Seol, S.K., Lo, T.N., Liu, C.J., Wang, C.L., Lin, C.S., Hwu, Y., Chen, C.H., Chang, L.W., Je, J.H., and Margaritondo, G.: Hydrogen bubbles and the growth morphology of ramified zinc by electrodeposition. J. Electrochem. Soc. 155, D400 (2008).
3. Vogt, H. and Balzer, R.J.: The bubble coverage of gas-evolving electrodes in stagnant electrolytes. Electrochim. Acta 50, 2073 (2005).
4. Balzer, R.J. and Vogt, H.: Effect of electrolyte flow on the bubble coverage of vertical gas-evolving electrodes. J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, E11 (2003).
5. Bari, G.A.D.: Nickel plating. In ASM Handbook Vol. 5: Surface Engineering, edited by Cotell, C.M., Sprague, J.A., and Smidt, F.A. Jr. (ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1994), p. 201.
6. Yoshida, H., Sone, M., Mizushima, A., Yan, H., Wakabayashi, H., Abe, K., Tao, X.T., Ichihara, S., and Miyata, S.: Application of emulsion of dense carbon dioxide in electroplating solution with nonionic surfactants for nickel electroplating. Surf. Coat. Technol. 173, 285 (2003).
7. Yoshida, H., Sone, M., Wakabayashi, H., Abe, K., Tao, X.T., Yan, H., Ichihara, S., and Miyata, S.: New electroplating method of nickel in emulsion of supercritical carbon dioxide and electroplating solution to enhance uniformity and hardness of plated film. Thin Solid Films 446, 194 (2004).
8. Yan, H., Sone, M., Sato, N., Ichihara, S., and Miyata, S.: The effects of dense carbon dioxide on nickel plating using emulsion of carbon dioxide in electroplating solution. Surf. Coat. Technol. 182, 329 (2004).
9. Yamada, Y., Mitsuya, S., Furuhashi, T., Ichihara, S., and Usui, H.: Novel electroplating method using foam of an electrolyte solution. J. Chem. Eng. Jpn. 43, 966 (2010).
10. Yamada, Y., Fujisawa, Y., Sugawara, T., Furuhashi, T., Ichihara, S., and Usui, H.: Removal of a bubble on the surface of solid in liquid using flow of foam. Hyomen Gijutsu 63, 266 (2012).
11. Yamada, Y., Fujisawa, Y., Sugawara, T., Furuhashi, T., Ichihara, S., and Usui, H.: Electroplating of nickel films using stable foam electrolyte solution. Hyomen Gijutsu 63, 531 (2012).
12. Madavan, N.K., Deutsch, S., and Merkle, C.L.: Reduction of turbulent skin friction by microbubbles. Phys. Fluids 27, 356 (1984).
13. Kato, H., Fujii, Y., Yamaguchi, H., and Miyanaga, M.: Frictional drag reduction by injecting high-velocity fluid into turbulent boundary layer. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng. Fluids Eng. Div. 107, 15 (1991).
14. Kawamura, T., Moriguchi, Y., Kato, H., Kakugawa, A., and Kodama, Y.: Effect of bubble size on the microbubble drag reduction of a turbulent boundary layer. In Proc. 4th ASME/JSME Joint Fluids Eng. Conf., Honolulu, HI, July 6–10, 2003, p. 647.
15. Furuhashi, T., Yamada, Y., Ichihara, S., Takai, A., and Usui, H.: Electroless plating of Ni thin films using foam of electrolye. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 02BC06 (2016).
16. Yamada, Y., Sugawara, T., Furuhashi, T., Ichihara, S., and Usui, H.: Effect of bubble size in the electroplating using foam of electrolyte. Hyomen Gijutsu 63, 269 (2012).
17. Wilde, P.J.: Encyclopedia of Surface and Colloid Science, 2nd ed., Vol. 4 (Taylor and Francis, London, 2006), p. 2613.
18. Top Nicoron F-153; Technical Note K-035; Okuno Chemical Industries Co. Ltd.: Osaka, Japan, 1990.
19. Wakabayashi, H., Sato, N., Sone, M., Takada, Y., Yan, H., Abe, K., Mizumoto, K., Ichihara, S., and Miyata, S.: Nano-grain structure of nickel films prepared by emulsion plating using dense carbon dioxide. Surf. Coat. Technol. 190, 200 (2005).
20. Allen, R.M. and VanderSande, J.B.: The structure of electroless nickel-phosphorus coatings as a function of composition. Scr. Metall. 16, 1161 (1982).
21. Kumar, P.S. and Nair, P.K.: Effect of phosphorus content on the relative proportions of crystalline and amorphous phases in electroless NiP deposits. J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 13, 671 (1994).
22. Yamada, Y., Sugawara, T., Furuhashi, T., Ichihara, S., and Usui, H.: Adhesion strength of nickel films deposited on aluminum surface in a foam of electrolyte. Hyomen Gijutsu 63, 329 (2012).
23. Tomlinson, W.J. and Carroll, M.W.: Substrate roughness, deposit thickness and the corrosion of electroless nickel coatings. J. Mater. Sci. 25, 4972 (1990).
24. Hsu, C.H., Chiu, S.C., and Shih, Y.H.: Effects of thickness of electroless Ni-P deposit on corrosion fatigue damage of 7075-T6 under salt spray atmosphere. Mater. Trans. 45, 3201 (2004).

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Characteristics of nickel thin films prepared by electroless plating in foam of electrolyte

  • Takahiro Furuhashi (a1), Yoshiyasu Yamada (a1), Masato Hayashi (a2), Shoji Ichihara (a2) and Hiroaki Usui (a2)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.