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Versatile applications of three-dimensional objects fabricated by two-photon-initiated polymerization

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 November 2018

Cheol Woo Ha
School of Mechanical Engineering and Aerospace System, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141, Korea
Prem Prabhakaran
Department of Advanced Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hannam University, Daejeon 306-791, Korea
Kwang-Sup Lee*
Department of Advanced Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hannam University, Daejeon 306-791, Korea
Address all correspondence to Kwang-Sup Lee at
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In this topical review of two-photon stereolithography (TPS), we discuss novel materials and demonstrate applications of this technology. Two-photon-initiated chemical processes are used to fabricate arbitrary three-dimensional structures in TPS. In the first part of this article, the development of novel photoactive materials to fabricate pure inorganic or organic–inorganic hybrid microstructures is discussed. The second part discusses the fabrication of functional microstructures for highly specific applications to demonstrate the importance of TPS in different fields of science.

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