Imprint lithography has a remarkable patterning resolution of less than 5 nm, and it is simultaneously capable of patterning over large areas with long-range order. This combination enables a broad range of potential applications including terabit-density magnetic storage, CMOS integrated circuits, and nanowire molecular memory. This article provides a review of the status of imprint lithography for nanoscale manufacturing. First, representative nanoscale devices and their manufacturing requirements are reviewed, along with key patterning challenges that have to be overcome to enable these nanoscale applications. Two classes of top–down nanopatterning techniques, namely, photon-based lithography and proximity mechanical nanopatterning (including imprint lithography), are described, followed by the three primary building blocks of imprint lithography: imprint masks, tools, and materials. Theresults of the lithography process are detailed in terms of process data such as long-range order in the placement and size of the nanostructures, process throughput, and overall cost considerations.