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Recent Advances in Bulk Crystal Growth

  • Roberto Fornari and Michael Roth

Abstract

The growth of high-quality single crystals remains a challenging endeavor of materials science. Crystals of suitable size (from fiber crystals with diameters of tens of micrometers up to crystalline ingots or blocks with volumes up to 1 m3) and perfection (free from precipitates, inclusions, and twins with good uniformity and low concentration of dislocations) are required for fundamental research and practical implementation in microelectronic circuits, electro-optic switches and modulators, solid-state lasers, light-emitting diodes, sensors, and many other devices. In this introductory article of this issue of MRS Bulletin, we describe the two main challenges of today's crystal growth, namely (1) the production of well-established crystalline materials with improved structural perfection and larger size at a lower cost and (2) the bulk growth of new categories of materials with extreme thermodynamic characteristics, such as a very high melting point, high melting dissociation pressure, incongruent phase diagram, and anisotropic segregation. The subsequent six articles provide examples of how the crystal growers took up these challenges, which led to new experimental approaches and technological advances.

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1Gentile, A.L. and Elwell, D.F. (Eds.), MRS Bull. 13 (10) (1988).
2Derby, J.J., Crystal Growth, Bulk: Theory and Models, in Encyclopedia of Condensed Matter Physics, Bassani, G., Liedl, G., Wyder, P., Eds. (Elsevier Science Ltd., New York, 2005) pp. 274282.
3Hurle, D.T.J., Ed., Handbook of Crystal Growth, Volume 2: Bulk Crystal Growth (North Holland Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 1994).
4Scheel, H.J., Fukuda, T., Eds., Crystal Growth Technology (Wiley, New York, 2003).
5Fukuda, T., Rudolph, P., Uda, S., Eds., Fiber Crystal Growth from the Melt (Springer, Berlin, 2004).
6Capper, P., Ed., Bulk Crystal Growth of Electronic, Optical and Optoelectronic Materials (Wiley, New York, 2005).
7Scheel, H.J., Capper, P., Eds., Crystal Growth Technology: From Fundamentals and Simulations to Large-Scale Production (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2008).
8Roth, M., Tseitlin, M., Angert, N., Opt. Mater. 28, 71 (2006).
9Schujman, S.B., Schowalter, L.J., Bondokov, R.T., Morgan, K.E., Liu, W., Smart, J.A., Bettles, T., J. Cryst. Growth 310, 887 (2008).

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Recent Advances in Bulk Crystal Growth

  • Roberto Fornari and Michael Roth

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