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Real-Time X-Ray Diffraction For Materials Process Control

  • R.E. Green

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As useful as classical x-ray diffraction techniques have been, the ability to obtain x-ray diffraction images with extremely short exposure rimes opens up new opportunities for materials scientists, including real-time materials process control. This article briefly describes state-of-the-art systems for obtaining extremely rapid and real-time x-ray diffraction images and gives several examples of their applications for materials process control.

Two generic electro-optical methods permit real-time viewing and recording of x-ray diffraction images. The first uses a low-intensity conventional x-ray tube source leading to a low-intensity diffraction image, which requires a high-gain electro-optical imaging system. The second uses either a high-intensity rotating anode, synchrotron, or flash x-ray source. Such a high-intensity source produces a high-intensity diffraction image, permitting use of a low-gain high-resolution electro-optical imaging system.

Figure 1 schematically shows two types of image intensifier tubes which have been most often used to view x-ray diffraction images. By cascading three individual first generation image tube stages (Figure 1a), light gains as high as several million can be obtained. The second generation microchannel-plate image intensifier tube (Figure 1b) is similar to a single-stage first generation device except for the extremely important addition of a microchannel plate.

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12.Winter, J.M. Jr., Hanson, W.P., and Green, R.E. Jr., in National Synchrotron Light Source Annual Report 1986, edited by White-DePace, S. and Gmur, N. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1986) p. 405406.
13.Winter, J.M. Jr. and Green, R.E. Jr., “Real-Time Monitoring of Microstructural Transformations Using Synchrotron and Flash X-Ray Topography,” in Proceedings of Symposium on Intelligent Processing of Materials and Advanced Sensors (TMS-AIME, Warrendale, PA, to be published).
14.Winter, J.M. Jr., Green, R.E. Jr., and Corak, W.S., “White Beam Synchrotron X-Ray Topography of Gallium Arsenide,” in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, edited by Thompson, D.O. and Chimenti, D.E. (Plenum, New York, to be published).
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Real-Time X-Ray Diffraction For Materials Process Control

  • R.E. Green

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