Skip to main content Accessibility help

Movie-mode dynamic electron microscopy

  • Thomas LaGrange (a1), Bryan W. Reed (a2) and Daniel J. Masiel (a3)


The need to understand fast, complex physical phenomena through direct in situ observation has spurred the development of high-time-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two complementary approaches have emerged: the single-shot and stroboscopic techniques. Single-shot TEM has advanced through the development of dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) and, more recently, by the advent of movie-mode DTEM, which enables high-frame-rate in situ TEM experimentation by capturing nanosecond-scale sequences of images or diffraction patterns. Previous DTEM studies produced only single snapshots of fast material processes. Movie-mode DTEM provides the ability to track the creation, motion, and interaction of individual defects, phase fronts, and chemical reaction fronts, providing invaluable information on the chemical, microstructural, and atomic-level features that govern rapid material processes. This article discusses movie-mode DTEM technology, its application in the study of reaction dynamics in Ti–B-based reactive nanolaminates, and future instrumentation.



Hide All
1.Porter, D.A., Easterling, K.E., Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys, (Nelson Thrones Ltd., Delta Place, UK, 2nd ed. 1992).
2.Spivak, G.V., Pavlyuchenko, O.P., Petrov, V.I., Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 30, 822 (1966).
3.Bostanjoglo, O., Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 121, 1 (2002).
4.Bostanjoglo, O., Elschner, R., Mao, Z., Nink, T., Weingartner, M., Ultramicroscopy 81, 141 (2000).
5.Bostanjoglo, O., Tornow, R.P., Tornow, W., J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 20, 556 (1987).
6.Domer, H., Bostanjoglo, O., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4369 (2003).
7.Barwick, B., Park, H.S., Kwon, O.H., Baskin, J.S., Zewail, A.H., Science 322, 1227 (2008).
8.Zewail, A.H., Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 363, 315 (2005).
9.Zewail, A.H., Science 328, 187 (2010).
10.Armstrong, M.R., Boyden, K., Browning, N.D., Campbell, G.H., Colvin, J.D., DeHope, W.J., Frank, A.M., Gibson, D.J., Hartemann, F., Kim, J.S., King, W.E., LaGrange, T.B., Pyke, B.J., Reed, B.W., Shuttlesworth, R.M., Stuart, B.C., Torralva, B.R., Ultramicroscopy 107, 356 (2007).
11.Armstrong, M.R., Reed, B.W., Torralva, B.R., Browning, N.D., Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 114101 (2007).
12.LaGrange, T., Armstrong, M.R., Boyden, K., Brown, C.G., Campbell, G.H., Colvin, J.D., DeHope, W.J., Frank, A.M., Gibson, D.J., Hartemann, F.V., Kim, J.S., King, W.E., Pyke, B.J., Reed, B.W., Shirk, M.D., Shuttlesworth, R.M., Stuart, B.C., Torralva, B.R., Browning, N.D., Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 044105 (2006).
13.LaGrange, T., Campbell, G.H., Reed, B., Taheri, M., Pesavento, J.B., Kim, J.S., Browning, N.D., Ultramicroscopy 108, 1441 (2008).
14.LaGrange, T., Reed, B.W., Santala, M.K., McKeown, J.T., Kulovits, A., Wiezorek, J.M., Nikolova, L., Rosei, F., Siwick, B.J., Campbell, G.H., Micron 43, 1108 (2012).
15.Reed, B.W., Armstrong, M.R., Browning, N.D., Campbell, G.H., Evans, J.E., LaGrange, T., Masiel, D.J., Microsc. Microanal. 15, 272 (2009).
16.Campbell, G.H., LaGrange, T., Kim, J.S., Reed, B.W., Browning, N.D., J. Electron Microsc. 59, S67 (2010).
17.Kim, J.S., LaGrange, T., Reed, B.W., Knepper, R., Weihs, T.P., Browning, N.D., Campbell, G.H., Acta Mater. 59, 3571 (2011).
18.Kim, J.S., LaGrange, T., Reed, B.W., Taheri, M.L., Armstrong, M.R., King, W.E., Browning, N.D., Campbell, G.H., Science 321, 1472 (2008).
19.LaGrange, T., Campbell, G.H., Turchi, P.E.A., King, W.E., Acta Mater. 55, 5211 (2007).
20.LaGrange, T., Grummon, D.S., Reed, B.W., Browning, N.D., King, W.E., Campbell, G.H., Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 184101 (2009).
21.McKeown, J.T., Kulovits, A.K., Liu, C., Zweiacker, Kai, Reed, B.W., LaGrange, T., Wiezorek, J.M.K., Campbell, G.H., Acta Mater. 65, 56 (2014).
22.Nikolova, L., LaGrange, T., Reed, B.W., Stern, M.J., Browning, N.D., Campbell, G.H., Kieffer, J.C., Siwick, B.J., Rosei, F., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 3 (2010).
23.Taheri, M.L., LaGrange, T., Reed, B.W., Armstrong, M.R., Campbell, G.H., DeHope, W.J., Kim, J.S., King, W.E., Masiel, D.J., Browning, N.D., Microsc. Res. Tech. 72, 122 (2009).
24.Lobastov, V.A., Srinivasan, R., Zewail, A.H., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 7069 (2005).
25.Barwick, B., Flannigan, D.J., Zewail, A.H., Nature 462, 902 (2009).
26.Carbone, F., Barwick, B., Kwon, O.H., Park, H.S., Baskin, J.S., Zewail, A.H., Chem. Phys. Lett. 468, 107 (2009).
27.Carbone, F., Kwon, O.H., Zewail, A.H., Science 325, 181 (2009).
28.Flannigan, D.J., Barwick, B., Zewail, A.H., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 9933 (2010).
29.Flannigan, D.J., Samartzis, P.C., Yurtsever, A., Zewail, A.H., Nano Lett. 9, 875 (2009).
30.Kwon, O.H., Barwick, B., Park, H.S., Baskin, J.S., Zewail, A.H., Nano Lett. 8, 3557 (2008).
31.Kwon, O.H., Barwick, B., Park, H.S., Baskin, J.S., Zewail, A.H., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 8519 (2008).
32.Reed, B.W., LaGrange, T., Shuttlesworth, R.M., Gibson, D.J., Campbell, G.H., Browning, N.D., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 053706 (2010).
33.Krüger, M., Schenk, M., Hommelhoff, P., Nature 475, 78 (2011).
34.King, W.E., Campbell, G.H., Frank, A., Reed, B., Schmerge, J.F., Siwick, B.J., Stuart, B.C., Weber, P.M., J. Appl. Phys. 97, 111101 (2005).
35.Bostanjoglo, O., Rosin, T., Mikroskopie 32, 190 (1976).
36.Bostanjoglo, O., Rosin, T., Proc. 7th Eur. Congr. Electron Microscopy, Brederoo, P., Boom, G., Eds. (Seventh European Congress on Electron Microscopy Foundation, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1980), p. 88.
37.Takaoka, A., Ura, K., J. Electron Microsc. 37, 117 (1988).
38.Santala, M.K., Reed, B.W., Raoux, S., Topuria, T., LaGrange, T., Campbell, G.H., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 174105 (2013).
39.LaGrange, T., Reed, B.W., McKeown, J.T., Santala, M.J., Dehope, W.J., Huete, G., Shuttlesworth, R.M., Campbell, G.H., Microsc. Microanal. 19, 1154 (2013).
40.Li, H.P., Acta Mater. 51, 3213 (2003).
41.Avrami, M., J. Chem. Phys. 7, 1103 (1939).
42.Johnson, W.A., Mehl, R.F., Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Metall. Eng. 135, 416 (1939).
43.Azatyan, T.S., Maltsev, V.M., Merzhanov, A.G., Seleznev, V.A., Combust. Explos. Shock Waves 16, 163 (1980).
44.Holt, J.B., Kingman, D.D., Bianchini, G.M., Mater. Sci. Eng. 71, 321 (1985).
45.Claessens, B.J., van der Geer, S.B., Taban, G., Vredenbregt, E.J.D., Luiten, O.J., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 164801 (2005).
46.McCulloch, A.J., Sheludko, D.V., Saliba, S.D., Bell, S.C., Junker, M., Nugent, K.A., Scholten, R.E., Nat. Phys. 7, 785 (2011).



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed