Skip to main content Accessibility help

Metastability alloy design

  • Dierk Raabe (a1), Zhiming Li (a2) and Dirk Ponge (a3)


This article reviews the concept of metastability in alloy design. While most materials are thermodynamically metastable at some stage during synthesis and service, we discuss here cases where metastable phases are not coincidentally inherited from processing, but rather are engineered. Specifically, we aim at compositional (partitioning), thermal (kinetics), and microstructure (size effects and confinement) tuning of metastable phases so that they can trigger athermal transformation effects when mechanically, thermally, or electromagnetically loaded. Such a concept works both at the bulk scale and also at a spatially confined microstructure scale, such as at lattice defects. In the latter case, local stability tuning works primarily through elemental partitioning to dislocation cores, stacking faults, interfaces, and precipitates. Depending on stability, spatial confinement, misfit, and dispersion, both bulk and local load-driven athermal transformations can equip alloys with substantial gain in strength, ductility, and damage tolerance. Examples include self-organized metastable nanolaminates, austenite reversion steels, metastable medium- and high-entropy alloys, as well as steels and titanium alloys with martensitic phase transformation and twinning-induced plasticity effects.



Hide All
1.Raabe, D., Sandlöbes, S., Millán, J., Ponge, D., Assadi, H., Herbig, M., Choi, P.-P., Acta Mater. 61, 6132 (2013).
2.Raabe, D., Herbig, M., Sandlöbes, S., Li, Y., Tytko, D., Kuzmina, M., Choi, P.-P., Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 18, 253 (2014).
3.Kuzmina, M., Ponge, D., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 86, 182 (2015).
4.Makineni, S.K., Lenz, M., Kontis, P., Li, Z., Kumar, A., Felfer, P.J., Neumeier, S., Herbig, M., Spiecker, E., Raabe, D., Gault, B., JOM 70, 1736 (2018).
5.Li, Y., Raabe, D., Herbig, M., Choi, P.-P., Goto, S., Kostka, A., Yarita, H., Borchers, C., Kirchheim, R., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 106104 (2014).
6.Grässel, O., Krüger, L., Frommeyer, G., Meyer, L.W., Int. J. Plast. 16, 1391 (2000).
7.Zaefferer, S., Ohlert, J., Bleck, W., Acta Mater. 52, 2765 (2004).
8.Liu, J., Chen, C., Feng, Q., Fang, X., Wang, H., Liu, F., Lu, J., Raabe, D., Mater. Sci. Eng. A 703, 236 (2017).
9.Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 45, 1137 (1997).
10.Frommeyer, G., Brüx, U., Neumann, P., ISIJ Int . 43, 438 (2003).
11.Han, J., da Silva, A.K., Ponge, D., Raabe, D., Lee, S.-M., Lee, Y.-K., Lee, S.-I., Hwang, B., Acta Mater. 122, 199 (2017).
12.Allain, S., Chateau, J.P., Bouaziz, O., Steel Res. Int. 73, 299 (2002).
13.Bouaziz, O., Allain, S., Scott, C.P., Cugy, P., Barbier, D., Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 15, 141 (2011).
14.Saeed-Akbari, A., Mosecker, L., Schwedt, A., Bleck, W., Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 1688 (2012).
15.Gutierrez-Urrutia, I., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 59, 6449 (2011).
16.Steinmetz, D.R., Japel, T., Wietbrock, B., Eisenlohr, P., Gutierrez-Urrutia, I., Saeed-Akbari, A., Hickel, T., Roters, F., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 61, 494 (2013).
17.Idrissi, H., Renard, K., Schryvers, D., Jacques, P.J., Scr. Mater. 63, 961 (2010).
18.Gutierrez-Urrutia, I., Zaefferer, S., Raabe, D., Mater. Sci. Eng. A 527, 3552 (2010).
19.Choi, W.S., Sandlöbes, S., Malyar, N.V., Kirchlechner, C., Korte-Kerzel, S., Dehm, G., De Cooman, B.C., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 132, 162 (2017).
20.Herrera, C., Ponge, D., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 59, 4653 (2011).
21.Edmonds, D.V., He, K., Rizzo, F.C., De Cooman, B.C., Matlock, D.K., Speer, J.G., Mater. Sci. Eng. A 438, 25 (2006).
22.Speer, J.G., Matlock, D.K., De Cooman, B.C., Schroth, J.G., Acta Mater. 51, 2611 (2003).
23.Toji, Y., Matsuda, H, Herbig, M., Choi, P.P., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 65, 215 (2014).
24.Toji, Y., Miyamoto, G., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 86, 137 (2015).
25.Li, Z., Tasan, C.C., Pradeep, K.G., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 131, 323 (2017).
26.Gludovatz, B., Hohenwarter, A., Catoor, D., Chang, E.H., George, E.P., Ritchie, R.O., Science 345, 1153 (2014).
27.Yao, M.J., Pradeep, K.G., Tasan, C.C., Raabe, D., Scr. Mater. 72, 5 (2014).
28.Deng, Y., Tasan, C.C., Pradeep, K.G., Springer, H., Kostka, A., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 94, 124 (2015).
29.Laplanche, G., Kostka, A., Horst, O., Eggeler, G., George, E., Acta Mater. 118, 152 (2016).
30.Li, Z.M., Pradeep, K.G., Deng, Y., Raabe, D., Tasan, C.C., Nature 534, 227 (2016).
31.He, F., Wang, Z., Wu, Q., Li, J., Wang, J., Liu, C.T., Scr. Mater. 126, 15 (2017).
32.Li, Z.M., Raabe, D., JOM 69, 2099 (2017).
33.Ma, D., Yao, M., Pradeep, K.G., Tasan, C.C., Springer, H., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 98, 288 (2015).
34.Jo, Y.H., Jung, S., Choi, W.M., Sohn, S.S., Kim, H.S., Lee, B.J., Kim, N.J., Lee, S., Nat. Commun. 8, 15719 (2017).
35.Wu, Z., Bei, H., Pharr, G.M., George, E.P., Acta Mater. 81, 428 (2014).
36.Huang, S., Li, W., Lu, S., Tian, F.Y., Shen, J., Holmström, E., Vitos, L., Scr. Mater. 108, 44 (2015).
37.Huang, S., Huang, H., Li, W., Kim, D., Lu, S., Li, X., Holmström, E., Kwon, S.K., Vitos, L., Nat. Commun. 9, 2381 (2018).
38.Zaddach, A.J., Niu, C., Koch, C.C., Irving, D.L., JOM 65, 1780 (2013).
39.Liu, S.F., Wu, Y.D., Wang, H.T., He, J.Y., Liu, J.B., Chen, C.X., Liu, X.J., Wang, H., Lu, Z.P., Intermetallics 93, 269 (2017).
40.Gludovatz, B., Hohenwarter, A., Thurston, K.V.S., Bei, H.B., Wu, Z.G., George, E.P., Ritchie, R.O., Nature Commun . 7, 10602 (2016).
41.Wang, M.M., Li, Z.M., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 147, 236 (2018).
42.Slone, C.E., Chakraborty, S., Miao, J., George, E.P., Mills, M.J., Niezgoda, S.R., Acta Mater. 158, 38 (2018).
43.Okamoto, N.L., Fujimoto, S., Kambara, Y., Kawamura, M., Chen, Z.M., Matsunoshita, H., Tanaka, K., Inui, H., George, E.P., Sci. Rep. 6, 35863 (2016).
44.Raabe, D., Tasan, C.C., Springer, H., Bausch, M., Steel Res. Int. 86, 1127 (2015).
45.Ma, L.L., Wang, L., Nie, Z.H., Wang, F.C., Xue, Y.F., Zhou, J.L., Cao, T.Q., Wang, Y.D., Yang, R., Acta Mater. 128, 12 (2017).
46.Li, Z., Körmann, F., Grabowski, B., Neugebauer, J., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 136, 262 (2017).
47.Moon, J., Qi, Y., Tabachnikova, E., Estrin, Y., Choi, W.M., Joo, S.H., Lee, B.J., Podolskiy, A., Tikhonovsky, M., Kim, H.S., Mater. Lett. 202, 86 (2017).
48.Koyama, M., Zhang, Z., Wang, M., Ponge, D., Raabe, D., Tsuzaki, K., Noguchi, H., Tasan, C.C., Science 355, 1055 (2017).
49.Kuzmina, M., Herbig, M., Ponge, D., Sandlöbes, S., Raabe, D., Science 349, 1080 (2015).
50.Kwiatkowski da Silva, A., Ponge, D., Peng, Z., Inden, G., Lu, Y., Breen, A., Gault, B., Raabe, D., Nature Commun . 9, 1137 (2018).
51.Calcagnotto, M., Ponge, D., Demir, E., Raabe, D., Mater. Sci. Eng. A 527, 2738 (2010).
52.Wang, M.M., Tasan, C.C., Ponge, D., Kostka, A., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 79, 268 (2014).
53.Wang, M.M., Tasan, C.C., Ponge, D., Dippel, A.C., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 85, 216 (2015).
54.Wang, M.M., Tasan, C.C., Ponge, D., Dippel, A.C., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 111, 262 (2016).
55.Fowler, R.H., Guggenheim, E.A., Statistical Thermodynamics (Macmillan, New York, 1939).
56.Kwiatkowski da Silva, A., Leyson, G., Kuzmina, M., Ponge, D., Herbig, M., Sandlöbes, S., Gault, B., Neugebauer, J., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 124, 305 (2017).
57.Zhang, J., Tasan, C.C., Lai, M.J., Dippel, A.-C., Raabe, D., Nat. Commun. 8, 14210 (2017).
58.Lai, M.J., Li, T., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 151, 67 (2018).
59.Lai, M.J., Tasan, C.C., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 111, 173 (2016).
60.Lai, M.J., Tasan, C.C., Zhang, J., Grabowski, B., Huang, L.F., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 92, 55 (2015).
61.Lai, M.J., Tasan, C.C., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 100, 290 (2015).
62.Dumay, A., Chateau, J.P., Allain, S., Migot, S., Bouaziz, O., Mater. Sci. Eng. A 483, 184 (2008).
63.Pisarik, S.T., Van Aken, D.C., Metall. Mater. Trans. A 47, 1009 (2016).
64.Lai, M.J., Li, Y.J., Lillpopp, L, Ponge, D., Will, S., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 155, 222 (2018).
65.Pierce, D.T., Jimenez, J.A., Bentley, J., Raabe, D., Oskay, C., Wittig, J.E., Acta Mater. 68, 238 (2014).
66.Springer, H., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 60, 4950 (2012).
67.Gutierrez-Urrutia, I., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 60, 5791 (2012).
68.Li, Z., Ludwig, A., Savan, A., Springer, H., Raabe, D., J. Mater. Res. 33, 3156 (2018).
69.Luo, H., Li, Z., Raabe, D., Sci. Rep. 7, 9892 (2017).
70.Luo, H., Lu, W., Fang, X., Ponge, D., Li, Z., Raabe, D., Mater. Today (2018), doi:10.1016/j.mattod.2018.07.015.
71.Lu, W.J., Liebscher, C.H., Dehm, G., Raabe, D., Adv. Mater. (2018), doi:10.1002/adma.201804727.
72.Mahajan, S., Green, M.L., Brasen, D., Metall. Trans. A. 8, 283 (1977).
73.Christian, J.W., Mahajan, S., Prog. Mater. Sci. 39, 1 (1995).
74.Mahato, B., Shee, S.K., Sahu, T., Chowdhury, S.G., Sahu, P., Porter, D.A., Acta Mater. 86, 69 (2015).
75.Li, Z., Tasan, C.C., Springer, H., Gault, B., Raabe, D., Sci. Rep. 7, 40704 (2017).
76.Senkov, O.N., Scott, J.M., Senkova, S.V., Miracle, D.B., J. Alloys Compd. 509, 6043 (2011).
77.Senkov, O.N., Senkova, S.V., Miracle, D.B., Woodward, C., Mater. Sci. Eng. A 565, 51 (2013).
78.Lei, Z., Liu, X., Wu, Y., Wang, H., Jiang, S., Wang, S., Hui, X., Wu, Y., Gault, B., Kontis, P., Raabe, D., Gu, L., Zhang, Q., Chen, H., Wang, H., Liu, J., An, K., Zeng, Q., Nieh, T.G., Lu, Z., Nature 563, 546 (2018).
79.Springer, H., Belde, M., Raabe, D., Mater. Des. 90, 1100 (2016).
80.Springer, H., Belde, M., Raabe, D., Mater. Sci. Eng. A 582, 235 (2013).
81.Belde, M., Springer, H., Inden, G., Raabe, D., Acta Mater. 86, 1 (2015).


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Metastability alloy design

  • Dierk Raabe (a1), Zhiming Li (a2) and Dirk Ponge (a3)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.