Skip to main content Accessibility help

The extreme mechanics of micro- and nanoarchitected materials

  • R. Schwaiger (a1), L.R. Meza (a2) and X. Li (a3)


A material’s properties are derived from its constituent material composition and its structural hierarchy across length scales down to the nanometer level. At submicron length scales, materials exhibit unique size-affected mechanical properties such as enhanced strength, ductility, and flaw tolerance, but these are generally lost in bulk materials. Emerging fabrication methods have enabled the creation of materials with controllable architectures down to the nanoscale. These micro- and nanoarchitected materials utilize both resilient architectures and size-affected constituent materials to achieve unprecedented mechanical properties such as ultrahigh strength at low density, recoverability after large applied strains in intrinsically brittle materials, and metamaterial properties such as chirality and negative static compressibility. In this article, we describe the governing principles behind these materials and outline recent progress in the field. We unravel the details of the deformation and failure processes to facilitate a fundamental understanding of effective materials properties and provide a guideline for the design of the next generation of nanoarchitected materials.



Hide All
1.Fratzl, P., Weinkamer, R., Prog. Mater. Sci. 52, 1263 (2007).10.1016/j.pmatsci.2007.06.001
2.Zadpoor, A.A., Mater. Horiz. 3, 371 (2016).10.1039/C6MH00065G
3.Kraft, O., Gruber, P.A., Mönig, R., Weygand, D., Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 40, 293 (2010).10.1146/annurev-matsci-082908-145409
4.Greer, J.R., De Hosson, J.T.M., Prog. Mater. Sci. 56, 654 (2011).10.1016/j.pmatsci.2011.01.005
5.Koch, C., Morris, D., Lu, K., Inoue, A., MRS Bull. 24, 54 (1999).
6.Ensslen, C., Brandl, C., Richter, G., Schwaiger, R., Kraft, O., Acta Mater. 108, 317 (2016).10.1016/j.actamat.2016.02.015
7.Gu, X.W., Wu, Z., Zhang, Y.-W., Srolovitz, D.J., Greer, J.R., Nano Lett. 13, 5703 (2013).
8.Arzt, E., Acta Mater. 46, 5611 (1998).
9.Josell, D., Brongersma, S.H., Tökei, Z., Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 39, 231 (2009).
10.Minnich, A.J., Johnson, J.A., Schmidt, A.J., Esfarjani, K., Dresselhaus, M.S., Nelson, K.A., Chen, G., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 095901 (2011).
11.Gibson, I., Rosen, D.W., Stucker, B., Additive Manufacturing Technologies (Springer, New York, 2015).
12.Zheng, X., Deotte, J., Alonso, M.P., Farquar, G.R., Weisgraber, T.H., Gemberling, S., Lee, H., Fang, N., Spadaccini, C.M., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 125001 (2012).
13.Maruo, S., Nakamura, O., Kawata, S., Opt. Lett. 22, 132 (1997).
14.Baldacchini, T., Three-Dimensional Microfabrication Using Two-Photon Polymerization, 1st ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2015).
15.Bauer, J., Meza, L.R., Schaedler, T.A., Schwaiger, R., Zheng, X., Valdevit, L., Adv. Mater. 29, 1701850 (2017).
16.Jeon, T., Kim, D.-H., Park, S.-G., Adv. Mater. Interfaces 5, 1800330 (2018).
17.Bai, W., Ross, C.A., MRS Bull. 41, 100 (2016). Rosário, J.J., Lilleodden, E.T., Waleczek, M., Kubrin, R., Petrov, A.Y., Dyachenko, P.N., Sabisch, J.E.C., Nielsch, K., Huber, N., Eich, M., Schneider, G.A., Adv. Eng. Mater. 17, 1420 (2015).
19.Khaderi, S.N., Scherer, M.R.J., Hall, C.E., Steiner, U., Ramamurty, U., Fleck, N.A., Deshpande, V.S., Extreme Mech. Lett. 10, 15 (2017).
20.Montemayor, L., Chernow, V., Greer, J.R., MRS Bull. 40, 1122 (2015).
21.Schaedler, T.A., Carter, W.B., Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 46, 187 (2016).
22.Zhang, X., Wang, Y., Ding, B., Li, X., Small 1902842 (2019).
23.Yu, X., Zhou, J., Liang, H., Jiang, Z., Wu, L., Prog. Mater. Sci. 94, 114 (2018).
24.Yeo, S.J., Oh, M.J., Yoo, P.J., Adv. Mater. 31, 1803670 (2018).
25.Meza, L.R., Phlipot, G.P., Portela, C.M., Maggi, A., Montemayor, L.C., Comella, A., Kochmann, D.M., Greer, J.R., Acta Mater. 140, 424 (2017).
26.Messner, M.C., J. Mech. Phys. Solids 96, 162 (2016).
27.Zhang, X., Vyatskikh, A., Gao, H., Greer, J.R., Li, X., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 6665 (2019).
28.Tancogne-Dejean, T., Mohr, D., Int. J. Solids Struct. 138, 24 (2018).
29.Berger, J.B., Wadley, H.N.G., McMeeking, R.M., Nature 543, 533 (2017).
30.Tancogne-Dejean, T., Diamantopoulou, M., Gorji, M.B., Bonatti, C., Mohr, D., Adv. Mater. 30, 1803334 (2018).
31.Nguyen, B.D., Cho, J.S., Kang, K., Mater. Des. 95, 490 (2016).
32.Lee, M.G., Lee, J.W., Han, S.C., Kang, K., Acta Mater. 103, 595 (2016).
33.Meza, L.R., Zelhofer, A.J., Clarke, N., Mateos, A.J., Kochmann, D.M., Greer, J.R., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 11502 (2015).
34.Zheng, X., Smith, W., Jackson, J., Moran, B., Cui, H., Chen, D., Ye, J., Fang, N., Rodriguez, N., Weisgraber, T., Spadaccini, C.M., Nat. Mater. 15, 1100 (2016).
35.Chen, D.Z., Jang, D., Guan, K.M., An, Q., Goddard, W.A. III, Greer, J.R., Nano Lett. 13, 4462 (2013).
36.Gu, X.W., Greer, J.R., Extreme Mech. Lett. 2, 7 (2015).
37.Jin, H.J., Weissmüller, J., Farkas, D., MRS Bull. 43, 35 (2018).
38.Montemayor, L.C., Greer, J.R., J. Appl. Mech. 82, 1 (2015).
39.Vyatskikh, A., Delalande, S., Kudo, A., Zhang, X., Portela, C.M., Greer, J.R., Nat. Commun. 9, 593 (2018).
40.Jang, D., Meza, L.R., Greer, F., Greer, J.R., Nat. Mater. 12, 893 (2013).
41.Bauer, J., Schroer, A., Schwaiger, R., Tesari, I., Lange, C., Valdevit, L., Kraft, O., Extreme Mech. Lett. 3, 105 (2015).
42.Meza, L.R., Das, S., Greer, J.R., Science 345, 1322 (2014).
43.Bauer, J., Schroer, A., Schwaiger, R., Kraft, O., Nat. Mater. 15, 438 (2016).
44.Montemayor, L.C., Wong, W.H., Zhang, Y.-W., Greer, J.R., Sci. Rep. 6, 1 (2016).
45.Lee, S.-W., Jafary-Zadeh, M., Chen, D.Z., Zhang, Y.-W., Greer, J.R., Nano Lett. 15, 5673 (2015).
46.Liontas, R., Greer, J.R., Acta Mater. 133, 393 (2017).
47.Xia, X., Di Leo, C.V., Gu, X.W., Greer, J.R., ACS Energy Lett. 1, 492 (2016).10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00256
48.Lee, C., Wei, X., Kysar, J.W., Hone, J., Science 321, 385 (2008).
49.Schroer, A., Bauer, J., Schwaiger, R., Kraft, O., Extreme Mech. Lett. 8, 283 (2016).
50.Schroer, A., Wheeler, J.M., Schwaiger, R., J. Mater. Res. 33, 274 (2018).10.1557/jmr.2017.485
51.Bauer, J., Hengsbach, S., Tesari, I., Schwaiger, R., Kraft, O., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 2453 (2014).
52.Ashby, M.F., Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 15 (2006).10.1098/rsta.2005.1678
53.Schaedler, T.A., Ro, C.J., Sorensen, A.E., Eckel, Z., Yang, S.S., Carter, W.B., Jacobsen, A.J., Adv. Eng. Mater. 16, 276 (2014).
54.Mieszala, M., Hasegawa, M., Guillonneau, G., Bauer, J., Raghavan, R., Frantz, C., Kraft, O., Mischler, S., Michler, J., Philippe, L., Small 13, 1602514 (2017).
55.Schaedler, T.A., Jacobsen, A.J., Torrents, A., Sorensen, A.E., Lian, J., Greer, J.R., Valdevit, L., Carter, W.B., Science 334, 962 (2011).10.1126/science.1211649
56.Maloney, K.J., Roper, C.S., Jacobsen, A.J., Carter, W.B., Valdevit, L., Schaedler, T.A., APL Mater. 1, 022106 (2013).
57.Zhang, X., Yao, J., Liu, B., Yan, J., Lu, L., Li, Y., Gao, H., Li, X., Nano Lett. 18, 4247 (2018).10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b01241
58.Totry, E., Molina-Aldareguía, J.M., González, C., Llorca, J., Compos. Sci. Technol. 70, 970 (2010).
59.Albiez, A., Schwaiger, R., MRS Adv. 4, 133 (2019).
60.Danzer, R., Supancic, P., Pascual, J., Lube, T., Eng. Fract. Mech. 74, 2919 (2007).
61.Zhu, T., Li, J., Prog. Mater. Sci. 55, 710 (2010).
62.Greer, J.R., Kim, J.Y., Burek, M.J., JOM 61, 19 (2009).
63.Meza, L.R., Greer, J.R., J. Mater. Sci. 49, 2496 (2013).
64.Portela, C.M., Greer, J.R., Kochmann, D.M., Extreme Mech. Lett. 22, 110 (2018).
65.Bauer, J., Schroer, A., Schwaiger, R., Kraft, O., Adv. Eng. Mater. 18, 1537 (2016).
66.Juarez, T., Schroer, A., Schwaiger, R., Hodge, A.M., Mater. Des. 140, 442 (2018).
67.Hsieh, M.T., Endo, B., Zhang, Y., Bauer, J., Valdevit, L., J. Mech. Phys. Solids 125, 401 (2019).
68.Han, S.C., Lee, J.W., Kang, K., Adv. Mater. 27, 5506 (2015).
69.Timoshenko, S.P., Gere, J.M., Theory of Elastic Stability (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961).
70.Meza, L.R., “Design, Fabrication, and Mechanical Property Analysis of 3D Nanoarchitected Materials,” PhD thesis, California Institute of Technology (2016).
71.Lian, J., Jang, D., Valdevit, L., Schaedler, T.A., Jacobsen, A.J., Carter, W.B., Greer, J.R., Nano Lett. 11, 4118 (2011).
72.Valdevit, L., Godfrey, S.W., Schaedler, T.A., Jacobsen, A.J., Carter, W.B., J. Mater. Res. 28, 2461 (2013).
73.Eckel, Z.C., Zhou, C., Martin, J.H., Jacobsen, A.J., Carter, W.B., Schaedler, T.A., Science 351, 58 (2016).
74.Cui, H., Hensleigh, R., Chen, H., Zheng, X., J. Mater. Res. 33, 360 (2018).
75.Torrents, A., Schaedler, T.A., Jacobsen, A.J., Carter, W.B., Valdevit, L.. Acta Mater. 60, 3511 (2012).
76.Zheng, X., Lee, H., Weisgraber, T.H., Shusteff, M., DeOtte, J., Duoss, E.B., Kuntz, J.D., Biener, M.M., Ge, Q.Q., Jackson, J.A., Kucheyev, S.O., Fang, N.X., Spadaccini, C.M., Science 344, 1373 (2014).
77.Salari-Sharif, L., Schaedler, T.A., Valdevit, L., J. Mater. Res. 29, 1755 (2014).
78.Mateos, A.J., Huang, W., Zhang, Y.W., Greer, J.R., Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1806772 (2019).
79.Gross, A., Pantidis, P., Bertoldi, K., Gerasimidis, S., J. Mech. Phys. Solids 124, 577 (2019).
80.Vangelatos, Z., Komvopoulos, K., Grigoropoulos, C.P., Math. Mech. Solids 24, 511 (2019).
81.O’Masta, M.R., Dong, L., St-Pierre, L., Wadley, H.N.G., Deshpande, V.S., J. Mech. Phys. Solids 98, 271 (2017).
82.Kadic, M., Bückmann, T., Schittny, R., Gumbsch, P., Wegener, M., Phys. Rev. Appl. 2, 054007 (2014).
83.Bückmann, T., Thiel, M., Kadic, M., Schittny, R., Wegener, M., Nat. Commun. 5, 4130 (2014).
84.Hengsbach, S., Díaz Lantada, A., Smart Mater. Struct. 23, 087001 (2014).
85.Qu, J., Kadic, M., Naber, A., Wegener, M., Sci. Rep. 7, 40643 (2017).
86.Fernandez-Corbaton, I., Rockstuhl, C., Ziemke, P., Gumbsch, P., Albiez, A., Schwaiger, R., Frenzel, T., Kadic, M., Wegener, M., Adv. Mater. 31, 1807742 (2019).
87.Frenzel, T., Kadic, M., Wegener, M., Science 358, 1072 (2017).
88.Frenzel, T., Köpfler, J., Jung, E., Kadic, M., Wegener, M., Nat. Comm. 29, 3384 (2019).10.1038/s41467-019-11366-8
89.Frenzel, T., Findeisen, C., Kadic, M., Gumbsch, P., Wegener, M., Adv. Mater. 28, 5865 (2016).

The extreme mechanics of micro- and nanoarchitected materials

  • R. Schwaiger (a1), L.R. Meza (a2) and X. Li (a3)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed