Skip to main content Accessibility help

Cooperative self-assembly of porphyrins and derivatives

  • Wenbo Wei (a1), Jiajie Sun (a2) and Hongyou Fan (a3)


There has been widespread recent interest in self-assembly and synthesis of porphyrin and its derivatives-based ordered arrays aiming to emulate natural light-harvesting processes and energy storage. However, technologies that leverage the structural advantages of individual porphyrins have not been fully realized and have been limited by available synthesis methods. This article provides general perspectives on porphyrin and derivative chemistry, and discussions on surfactant-assisted cooperative self-assembly using amphiphilic surfactants and functional porphyrins and derivatives. The cooperative self-assembly amplifies the intrinsic advantages of individual porphyrins by engineering them into well-defined one-dimensional–three-dimensional (1D–3D) nanostructures. Surfactant-assisted self-assembly of amphiphilic surfactants and porphyrins has been utilized to form well-defined “micelle-like” nanostructures. Driven by intermolecular interactions, subsequent nucleation and growth confined within these nanostructures lead to the formation of 1D–3D ordered optically and electrically active nanomaterials with structure and function on multiple length scales.



Hide All

Denotes equal contribution.



Hide All
1.Blankenship, R.E., Molecular Mechanisms of Photosynthesis (Blackwell, Oxford, 2002).10.1002/9780470758472
2.Mauzerall, D.C., Clin. Dermatol. 16, 195 (1998).10.1016/S0738-081X(97)00200-9
3.Dolphin, D., The Porphyrins (Academic Press, New York, 1978).
4.Drain, C.M., Smeureanua, G., Patela, S., Gong, X., Garnod, J., Arijeloyea, J., New J. Chem. 30, 1834 (2006).10.1039/b607289e
5.Drain, C.M.a.C., in Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Nalwa, H.S., Ed. (American Scientific Press, New York, 2004), p. 593.
6.Smith, K.M., Porphyrin and Metaloporphyrin (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1972).
7.Suslick, K.S., “Applications: Past, Present, and Future,” in The Porphyrin Handbook, Kadish, K.M., Guilard, R., Eds. (Academic Press, New York, 2000).
8.Drain, C.M., Varotto, A., Radivojevic, I., Chem. Rev. 109, 1630 (2009).10.1021/cr8002483
9.Zuber, H., Cogdell, R.J., “Structure and Organization of Purple Bacterial Antenna Complexes,” in Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria, Blankenship, R.E., Madigan, M.T., Bauer, C.E., Eds. (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995) pp. 315348.
10.Zuber, H., Brunisholz, R.A., “Structure and Function of Antenna Polypeptides and Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes: Principles and Variability,” in Chlorophylls, Sheer, H., Ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1991) pp. 627703.
11.Wasielewski, M.R., J. Org. Chem. 71, 5051 (2006).
12.George, S., Goldberg, I., Cryst. Growth Des. 6, 755 (2006).10.1021/cg050624m
13.Fujimoto, K., Toyoshi, T., Doi, Y., Inouye, M., Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27, 142 (2007).10.1016/j.msec.2006.04.002
14.Shmilovits, M., Vinodu, M., Goldberg, I., New J. Chem. 28, 223 (2004).10.1039/b312183f
15.Balaban, M.C., Eichhofer, A., Buth, G., Hauschild, R., Szmytkowski, J.D., Kalt, H., Balaban, T.S., J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 5512 (2008).10.1021/jp801510b
16.Koepf, M., Trabolsi, A., Elhabiri, M., Wytko, J.A., Paul, D., Albrecht-Gary, A.M., Weiss, J., Org. Lett. 7, 1279 (2005).10.1021/ol050033p
17.Gong, X., Milic, T., Xu, C., Batteas, J.D., Drain, C.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 14290 (2002).10.1021/ja027405z
18.Wagner, R.W., Johnson, T.E., Lindsey, J.S., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 11166 (1996).10.1021/ja961611n
19.Wang, J., Zhong, Y., Wang, L., Zhan, N., Cao, R., Bian, K., Alarid, L., Haddad, R.E., Bai, F., Fan, H., Nano Lett . 16, 6523 (2016).10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b03135
20.Zhang, N., Wang, L., Wang, H., Cao, R., Wang, J., Bai, F., Fan, H., Nano Lett . 18, 560 (2018).10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04701
21.Zhong, Y., Wang, J., Zhang, R., Wei, W., Wang, H., Lu, X., Bai, F., Wu, H., Haddad, R., Fan, H., Nano Lett . 14, 7175 (2014).10.1021/nl503761y
22.Zhong, Y., Wang, Z., Zhang, R., Bai, F., Wu, H., Haddad, R., Fan, H., ACS Nano 8, 827 (2014).10.1021/nn405492d
23.Barlow, D.E., Scudiero, L., Hipps, K.W., Langmuir 20, 4413 (2004).10.1021/la035879l
24.Chan, Y.-H., Schuckman, A.E., Perez, L.M., Vinodu, M., Drain, C.M., Batteas, J.D., J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 6110 (2008).10.1021/jp711833k
25.Scudiero, L., Hipps, K.W., Barlow, D.E., J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 2903 (2003).10.1021/jp026875c
26.Goldberg, I., Chem. Commun. 10, 1243 (2005).10.1039/b416425c
27.Gensch, T., Hofkens, J., Heirmann, A., Tsuda, K., Verheijen, W., Vosch, T., Christ, T., Basché, T., Müllen, K., De Schryver, F.C., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 38, 3752 (1999).10.1002/(SICI)1521-3773(19991216)38:24<3752::AID-ANIE3752>3.0.CO;2-Y
28.Hofkens, J., Maus, M., Gensch, T., Vosch, T., Cotlet, M., Kohn, F., Herrmann, A., Mullen, K., De Schryver, F., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9278 (2000).10.1021/ja0012570
29.Wang, Z., Medforth, C.J., Shelnutt, J.A., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 16720 (2004).10.1021/ja044148k
30.Wang, Z., Medforth, C.J., Shelnutt, J.A., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 15954 (2004).10.1021/ja045068j
31.Wang, Z., Li, Z., Medforth, C.J., Shelnutt, J.A., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 2440 (2007).10.1021/ja068250o
32.Hu, J.-S., Guo, , Liang, H.-P., Wan, L.-J., Jiang, L., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 17090 (2005).10.1021/ja0553912
33.Fan, H., Chem. Commun. 12, 1383 (2008).10.1039/B711251N
34.Fan, H., Leve, E.W., Scullin, C., Gabaldon, J., Tallant, D., Bunge, S., Boyle, T., Wilson, M.C., Brinker, C.J., Nano Lett . 5, 645 (2005).10.1021/nl050017l
35.Fan, H., Yang, K., Boye, D.M., Sigmon, T., Malloy, K.J., Xu, H., Lopez, G.P., Brinker, C.J., Science 304, 567 (2004).10.1126/science.1095140
36.Chen, M., Pica, T., Jiang, Y.-B., Li, P., Yano, K., Liu, J.P., Datye, A.K., Fan, H., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 6348 (2007).10.1021/ja069057x
37.Bai, F., Sun, Z., Wu, H., Haddad, R.E., Coker, E.N., Huang, J.Y., Rodriguez, M.A., Fan, H., Nano Lett . 11, 5196 (2011).10.1021/nl203598n
38.Bai, F., Wu, H., Haddad, R.E., Sun, Z., Schmitt, S.K., Skocypec, V.R., Fan, H., Chem. Commun. 46, 4941 (2010).10.1039/c002936j
39.Wang, J., Zhong, Y., Wang, X., Yang, W., Bai, F., Zhang, B., Alarid, L., Bian, K., Fan, H., Nano Lett . 17, 6916 (2017).
40.Wang, D., Niu, L., Qiao, Z.-Y., Cheng, D.-B., Wang, J., Zhong, Y., Bai, F., Wang, H., Fan, H., ACS Nano 12, 3796 (2018).10.1021/acsnano.8b01010
41.Sun, Z., Bai, F., Wu, H., Schmitt, S.K., Boye, D.M., Fan, H., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 13594 (2009).
42.Sun, Z., Bai, F., Wu, H., Schmitt, S.K., Boye, D.M., Zhang, J., Wang, J., Fan, H., Chem. Eur. J. 15, 11128 (2009).
43.Israelachvili, J., Intermolecular and Surface Forces (Academic Press, London, 1992).



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed