Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Blue-Green Light-Emitting Diodes and Violet Laser Diodes

  • Shuji Nakamura

Extract

Short-wavelength-emitting devices, such as blue laser diodes (LDs) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs), are currently sought for a number of applications, including full-color electroluminescent displays, laser printers, read-write laser sources for high-density information storage on magnetic and optical media, and sources for undersea optical communications. For these purposes, II–VI materials such as ZnSe and SiC, and III–V-nitride semiconductors such as GaN have been investigated intensively for a long time. However it was impossible to obtain high-brightness (over 1 cd) blue LEDs and reliable LDs. Much progress has been achieved recently on green LEDs and LDs using II–VI-based materials. The short lifetimes prevent II–VI-based devices from commercialization at present. The short lifetime of these II-VI-based devices may be caused by the crystal defects at a density of 103/cm2 because one crystal defect would cause the propagation of other defects leading to failure of the devices. Another wide-bandgap material for blue LEDs is SiC. The brightness of SiC blue LEDs is only between 10 mcd and 20 mcd because of the indirect bandgap of this material.

On green LEDs, the external quantum efficiency of conventional, green GaP LEDs is only 0.1% due to the indirect bandgap of this material. The peak wavelength is 555 nm (yellowish green). As another material for green emission devices, AlInGaP has been used. The present performance of green AlInGaP LEDs is an emission wavelength of 570 nm (yellowish green) and maximum external quantum efficiency of 1%.

Copyright

References

Hide All
1.Xie, W., Grillo, D.C., Gunshor, R.L., Kobayashi, M., Jeong, H., Ding, J., Nurmikko, A.V., Hua, G.C., and Otsuka, N., Appl. Phys. Lett. 60 (1992) p. 1999.
2.Eason, D.E., Yu, Z., Hughes, W.C., Roland, W.H., Boney, C., Cook, J.W. Jr., Schetzina, J.F., Cantwell, G., and Harasch, W.C., Appl. Phys. Lett. 66 (1995) p. 115.
3.Edmond, J., Kong, H., and Dmitriev, V., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 137 (1994) p. 515.
4.Pankove, J.I., Miller, E.A., and Berkeyheiser, J.E., RCA Review 32 (1971) p. 283.
5.Okuyama, H. and Ishibashi, A., Microelec. J. 25 (1994) p. 643.
6.Koga, K. and Yamaguchi, T., Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 23 (1991) p. 127.
7.Craford, M.G., Circuits & Devices (September 1992) p. 24.
8.Sugawara, H., Itaya, K., and Hatakoshi, G., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33 (1994) p. 5784.
9.Kuramata, A., Horino, K., Domen, K., Shinohara, K., and Tanahashi, T., Appl. Phys. Lett. 67 (1995) p. 2521.
10.Lin, M.E., Strite, S., Agarwal, A., Salvador, A., Zhou, G.L., Teraguchi, N., Rockett, A., and Morkoç, H., Appl. Phys. Lett. 62 (1993) p. 702.
11.Amano, H., Kito, M., Hiramatsu, K., and Akasaki, I., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28 (1989) p. L2112.
12.Nakamura, S., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30 (1991) p. L1705.
13.Morkoç, H., Strite, S., Gao, G.B., Lin, M.E., Sverdlov, B., and Burns, M., J. Appl. Phys. 76 (1994) p. 1363.
14.Nakamura, S., Iwasa, N., Senoh, M., and Mukai, T., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31 (1992) p. 1258.
15.Nakamura, S., Mukai, T., and Senoh, M., Appl Phys. Lett. 64 (1994) p. 1687.
16.Nakamura, S., Senoh, M., Iwasa, N., and Nagahama, S., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34 (1995) p. L797.
17.Nakamura, S., Senoh, M., Iwasa, N., Nagahama, S., Yamada, T., and Mukai, T., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. p. L1332.
18.Chichibu, S., Azuhata, T., Sota, T., and Nakamura, S., presented at 38th Electronic Material Conference, W-10, June 26–28, Santa Barbara, (1996).
19.Amano, H., Asahi, T., and Akasaki, I., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29 (1990) p. L205.
20.Zubrilov, A.S., Nikolaev, V.I., Tsvetkov, D.V., Dmitriev, V.A., Irvine, K.G., Edmond, J.A., and Carter, C.H., Appl. Phys. Lett. 67 (1995) p. 533.
21.Khan, M.A., Krishnankutty, S., Skogman, R.A., Kuznia, J.N., and Olson, D.T., Appl. Phys. Lett. 65 (1994) p. 520.
22.Kim, S.T., Amano, H., and Akasaki, I., Appl. Phys. Lett. 67 (1995) p. 267.
23.Amano, H., Tanaka, T., Kunii, Y., Kato, K., Kim, S.T., and Akasaki, I., Appl. Phys. Lett. 64 (1994) p. 1377.
24.Aggarwal, R.L., Maki, P.A., Molnar, R.J., Liau, Z.L., and Melngailis, I., J. Appl. Phys. 79 (1996) p. 2148.
25.Schmidt, T.J., Yang, X.H., Shan, W., Song, J.J., Salvador, A., Kim, W., Aktas, O., Botchkarev, A., and Morkoç, H., Appl. Phys. Lett. 68 (1996) p. 1820.
26.Nakamura, S., Senoh, M., Nagahama, S., Iwasa, N., Yamada, T., Matsushita, T., Kiyoku, H., and Sugimoto, Y., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35 (1996) p. L74.
27.Nakamura, S., Senoh, M., Nagahama, S., Iwasa, N., Yamada, T., Matsushita, T., Kiyoku, H., and Sugimoto, Y., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35 (1996) p. L217.
28.Nakamura, S., Senoh, M., Nagahama, S., Iwasa, N., Yamada, T., Matsushita, T., Kiyoku, H., and Sugimoto, Y., Appl. Phys. Lett. 68 (1996) p. 2105.
29.Nakamura, S., Senoh, M., Nagahama, S., Iwasa, N., Yamada, T., Matsushita, T., Kiyoku, H., and Sugimoto, Y., Appl. Phys. Lett. 68 (1996) p. 3269.
30.Nakamura, S., Senoh, M., Nagahama, S., Iwasa, N., Yamada, T., Matsushita, T., Kiyoku, H., and Sugimoto, Y., Appl. Phys. Lett. 69 (1996) p. 1477.
31.Nakamura, S., Senoh, M., Nagahama, S., Iwasa, N., Yamada, T., Matsushita, T., Kiyoku, H., and Sugimoto, Y., Appl. Phys. Lett. 69 (1996) p. 3034.
32.Nakamura, S., Mukai, T., and Senoh, M., J. Appl. Phys. 76 (1994) p. 8189.
33.Nakamura, S., Microelec. J. 25 (1994) p. 651.
34.Nakamura, S., Mukai, T., Senoh, M., Nagahama, S., and Iwasa, N., J. Appl. Phys. 74 (1993) p. 3911.
35.Chichibu, S., Azuhata, T., Sota, T., and Nakamura, S., J. Appl. Phys. 79 (1996) p. 2784.
36.Nakamura, S., Jpn. J. Appl Phys. 30 (1991) p. 1620.
37.Nakamura, S., Senoh, M., Nagahama, S., Iwasa, N., Yamada, T., Matsushita, T., Sugimoto, Y., and Kiyoku, H., Appl. Phys. Lett. 69 (1996) p. 1568.
38.Narukawa, Y., Kawakami, Y., Funato, M., Fujita, Sz., Fujita, Sg., and Nakamura, S. (unpublished manuscript).
39.Suzuki, M. and Uenoyama, T., Jpn. J. Appl Phys. 35 (1996) p. 1420.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Blue-Green Light-Emitting Diodes and Violet Laser Diodes

  • Shuji Nakamura

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.