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Advances In Analytical Auger Electron Spectroscopy

  • Chuan C. Chang

Abstract

Fundamental principles and experimental procedures for fully utilizing the power of Auger analysis are discussed. Topics include: quantitative analysis, high resolution imaging, depth profiling, and noise reduction. These studies reveal several improvements that might be expected in the immediate future and how they might be achieved. Some knowledge of Auger spectroscopy is assumed, but references on theory, principles, instrumentation, and applications are cited.

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1.Chang, C.C., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 18(2) (1981) p. 276.
2.Chang, C.C., in Characterization of Solid Surfaces, edited by Kane, P.F. and Larrabee, G.B. (Plenum, New York, 1974) Chapter 20.
3.Chang, C.C., Surf. Sci. 48 (1975) p. 9.
4.Chattarji, D., The Theory of Auger Transitions (Academic Press, New York, 1976). Note: excellent review of theory using a single set of notations; second half of book is an enlightened survey of experimental and applied Auger analysis; treatment of Chang's derivation (Ref. 2) has typographical errors.
5.Electron Spectroscopy: Theory, Techniques, and Applications, edited by Brundle, C.R. and Baker, A.D.: (a) Vol. I, 1977; (b) Vol. II, 1978; (c) Vol. III, 1979; and (d) Vol. IV, 1981.
6.Practical Surface Analysis by Auger and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, edited by Briggs, D. and Seah, M.P. (J. Wiley, New York, 1983).
7.Thin Film and Depth Profile Analysis,” in Topics in Current Physics Vol. 37, edited by Oechsner, H. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984).
8.Bindell, J.B., in VLSI Technology, edited by Sze, S.M. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2nd edition to be published in 1988).
9.Benninghoven, A., Rudenauer, F.G., and Werner, H.W., Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry—Basic Concepts, Instrumental Aspects, Applications and Trends (Wiley, New York, 1987).
10.Mitchell, I.V., Phys. Bull. 30 (1979) p. 23.
11.Taglauer, E. and Heiland, W., Appl. Phys. 9 (1976) p. 261.
12.Weber, R.E., Peria, W.T., J. Appl. Phys. 38 (1967) p. 4355.
13.Chang, C.C., Appl. Phys. Lett. 31(4) (1977) p. 304.
14.Hall, P.M. and Morabito, J.M., Surf. Sci. 83 (1979) p. 391.
15.Chang, C.C. and Boulin, D.M., Surf. Sci. 69 (1977) p. 385.
16.Davis, L.E., MacDonald, N.C., Palmberg, P.W., Riach, G.E., and Weber, R.E., Handbook of Auger Electron Spectroscopy (Physical Electronics, Eden Prairie, MN, 1978).
17.Topics in Applied Physics, edited by Behrisch, R. (Springer-Verlag, New York): (a) Sputtering by Particle Bombardment I, Vol. 47 (1981); (b) Sputtering by Particle Bombardment II, Vol. 52 (1983).
18.Zalar, A., Thin Solid Films 124 (1985) p. 223.
19.Gaarenstroom, S.W. and Waldo, R.A., Appl. of Surf. Sci. 18 (1984) p. 223.

Advances In Analytical Auger Electron Spectroscopy

  • Chuan C. Chang

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