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Super-Hydrophilic, Bio-compatible Anti-Fog Coating for Lenses in Closed Body Cavity Surgery: VitreOxTM – Scientific Model, In Vitro Experiments and In Vivo Animal Trials

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 June 2016

Nicole Herbots
Affiliation:
SiO2 Nanotech LLC, Phoenix, AZ, United States
Clarizza F. Watson
Affiliation:
SiO2 Nanotech LLC, Phoenix, AZ, United States
Eric J. Culbertson
Affiliation:
SiO2 Nanotech LLC, Phoenix, AZ, United States MD, Gen. Surg., Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, United States
Ajjya J. Acharya
Affiliation:
SiO2 Nanotech LLC, Phoenix, AZ, United States University of Arizona, School of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, United States
Pierre R. Thilmany
Affiliation:
SiO2 Nanotech LLC, Phoenix, AZ, United States Department of Chemistry, Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium
Steven Marsh
Affiliation:
Animal Clinical Trials & Observation, Marsh Designs LLC, Phoenix, AZ, United States
Raymond T. Marsh
Affiliation:
Dr of Vet. Med, Animal Clinic Trials Surgery, Marsh Designs LLC, Phoenix, AZ, United States
Igor P.O. Martins
Affiliation:
SiO2 Nanotech LLC, Phoenix, AZ, United States Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil
Gabriel P.K. Watson
Affiliation:
SiO2 Nanotech LLC, Phoenix, AZ, United States
A.M. Mascareno
Affiliation:
SiO2 Nanotech LLC, Phoenix, AZ, United States
Saloni Sinha
Affiliation:
SiO2 Nanotech LLC, Phoenix, AZ, United States
Mayuri Gupta
Affiliation:
SiO2 Nanotech LLC, Phoenix, AZ, United States
Nehal Gupta
Affiliation:
SiO2 Nanotech LLC, Phoenix, AZ, United States
Abijith Krishnan
Affiliation:
SiO2 Nanotech LLC, Phoenix, AZ, United States
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Abstract

Lenses in laparoscopes, arthroscopes, and laryngoscopes fog during closed body surgery due to humidity from bodily fluids and differences between body and operating room temperatures.1,2 Surgeons must repeatedly remove, clean, and reinsert scopes that are obscured by fog. As a result, surgery duration, infection risks, and scarring from air exposure increase.3,4 Current methods to address fogging introduce other complications. Acidic alcohol-based coatings scar tissue and quickly evaporate, and heated lenses require reheating every 5 to 20 minutes.3,4 This paper presents a new super-hydrophilic, biocompatible, non-toxic, pH neutral (7.2-7.4), and long-lasting anti-fog coating called VitreOx.5-7 VitreOx can be used wet or dry, without use of alcohol, heat, or fluid evacuation. When applied as a liquid, it easily espouses lenses’ surfaces and edges, and dries within seconds to form a permanently super-hydrophilic surface on silica and polymer surfaces. VitreOx avoids current shortfalls by eliminating frequent reapplications, avoiding reapplication for surgeries lasting up to 72 hours.

VitreOx's anti-fog properties can be explained by nucleation and growth theory for thin films condensation: 1) 3-D droplets, resulting in fogging; 2) 2-D sheets resulting in a flat transparent film; or 3) mixed 3-D on 2-D, resulting in optical distortion. On hydrophobic surfaces (e.g. lenses), condensation occurs with fogging via spherical 3-D droplets, as in the Volmer-Weber model. 3-D droplets scatter light in all directions through refraction yielding opaque or translucent films (fog). VitreOx applied to hydrophobic lenses renders them super-hydrophilic. Similar to the 2-D Frank Van-der-Merwe Growth Mode, condensation with uniform wetting yields transparent 2-D films that do not distort optical images transmission.

In vitro and in vivo studies of VitreOx were conducted to measure performance and duration of anti-fog effectiveness and bio-compatibility. In vitro tests spanned from 3 to 72 hours over a 3-year range. Side-by-side in vivo gastro-endoscopies were conducted on Yucatan™ swine for 90 minutes using 1) VitreOx, 2) bare lens, and 3) Covidien Clearify™ surfactant with warmer. VitreOx™ coated lenses did not fog nor need reapplication for 90 minutes, while Covidien Clearify™ lasted 38 minutes without fogging, requiring retreatment. No adverse reaction was observed on swines exposed toVitreOx, in surgery and 12 months thereafter.

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Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2016 

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References

Eaton, AM, Jaffe, GJ, McCuen, BW, Mincey, GJ. (1995). Ophthalmology. 102(5):733736 CrossRef
Knauth, A, Weiss, M, Dave, M, Frotzler, A, Haas, T. (2012). Anaesthesist. 2012 Dec;61(12):1036–44. doi: 10.1007/s00101-012-2116-z. Epub 2012 Dec 13CrossRef
Lawrentschuk, N, Fleshner, NE, Bolton, DM. (2010). Journal of Endourology. 24(6):905913 CrossRef
Kaplan, D. S., Muth, R. R., Totakura, N., Zinner, D. E., Stone, C. W. (1994) US Pat. 5,518,502.
US Pat. Pend. Inventors : Watson, C.F., Herbots, N.. Assignee: SiO2 NanoTech LLC
US Patent Pending “Permanent Anti-Fog Coatings & Delivery DevicesInventors : Herbots, N., Watson, C.F., Culbertson, E.J., Thilmany, P. R., Gupta, M., Sinha, S., Krishnan, A., Martins, I., Gupta, N.. Assignee: SiO2 NanoTech LLC
Orr, A.J., Watson, C.F., Herbots, N., Culbertson, E.J., Acharya, A.J., et al. Tech Connect World 2014, Innovation Conf. & Expo, June 15-18, 2014 Washington DC
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Herbots, N. et al. , Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B (2011), doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2011.01.094
Xing, Q., Hart, M. A., Culbertson, R. J., Bradley, J. D., Herbots, N., Wilkens, B. J, Watson, C. F. (2011). Vol. 1336, pp. 303309 10.1063/1.3586109
Xing, Q. PhD Thesis, Arizona State Univ., Chair: N. Herbots
Protocol for fog tests standard from BS EN 168 (2001)
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Frank, F. C.; van der Merwe, J. H. (1949). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 198 (1053): 205225 CrossRef

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Super-Hydrophilic, Bio-compatible Anti-Fog Coating for Lenses in Closed Body Cavity Surgery: VitreOxTM – Scientific Model, In Vitro Experiments and In Vivo Animal Trials
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