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Energy Level Alignment at Bebq2/PEI/ITO Interfaces Studied by UV Photoemission Spectroscopy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 January 2017

Kohei Shimizu
Affiliation:
Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8522, Japan.
Hirohiko Fukagawa
Affiliation:
NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories , 1-10-11 Kinuta, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8510, Japan.
Katsuyuki Morii
Affiliation:
Suita Research Center, Nippon Shokubai Co., Ltd., 5-8 Nishiotabi-cho, Suita-shi, Osaka 564-0034 Japan.
Hiroumi Kinjo
Affiliation:
Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8522, Japan.
Tomoya Sato
Affiliation:
Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8522, Japan.
Hisao Ishii
Affiliation:
Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8522, Japan. Center for Frontier Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8522, Japan. Molecular Chirality Research Center, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8522, Japan.
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Abstract

A polyethyleneimine (PEI) interlayer has been applied on indium tin oxide (ITO) to improve electron injection in organic devices including inverted organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). To understand the improvement effect by PEI insertion, the energy level alignment at bis(10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinolinato)beryllium (Bebq2)/PEI/ITO interfaces was investigated by UV photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). The deposition of a PEI layer was found to reduce the absolute work function of ITO by 1.4 eV. The vacuum level shifts at Bebq2/ITO and Bebq2/PEI interfaces were also determined as 0.3 eV and 0.1 eV in the direction to reduce the electron injection barrier, respectively. Thus the work function reduction by PEI and downward vacuum level shift at the Bebq2/PEI interface can contribute to the improvement effect. Kelvin probe measurement revealed the weak orientation polarization in Bebq2 film with the bottom side positively polarized. This polarization polarity is also advantageous for electron injection in inverted devices.

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Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2017 

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References

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Energy Level Alignment at Bebq2/PEI/ITO Interfaces Studied by UV Photoemission Spectroscopy
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