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What is Asia for Us and Can We Be Asians? The New Asianism in Contemporary Japan*

  • SIMON AVENELL (a1)

Abstract

This paper traces the development of the ‘New Asianism’ in Japan over the past quarter of a century. It identifies three broad trajectories or normative positions in the debate: those advocating the replication of a Japanese model in Asia, those in favour of a genuine community of equals, and those who see Asia as the only future for Japan and as a solution for the country's economic and social problems. The paper argues that the evolution and shifting prominence of each trajectory over time is indicative of the ways globalization and regionalization are impinging on imaginations of the nation and facilitating novel perspectives on East Asia in Japan. Although the nation-state is, and will probably remain, an important force behind Japan's relations in Asia for the foreseeable future, the New Asianism may be indicative of its gradual relativization and the beginning of a new, more multidimensional understanding of Asia in Japan.

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*

This work was supported by the Academy of Korean Studies Grant funded by the Korean Government (MEST) (AKS-2013-DZZ-3103). For their thoughtful comments and feedback on earlier drafts I thank Sunil Amrith, Cemil Aydin, Sebastian Conrad, Prasenjit Duara, Bai Gao, Engseng Ho, Keunsik Jung, Michael Kim, Carlos Rojas, Dominic Sachsenmaier, C. J. Wee Wan-ling, Jin Yan, and participants in the workshop series Regionalisms and East Asia/Critical Perspectives on Regionalism. I am also grateful to the two anonymous reviewers for their numerous suggestions and constructive criticisms.

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1 Hamashita, Takeshi. (1993). ‘Ajia kenkyū no genzai’, in Ajia kara Kangaeru (1) Kōsaku suru Ajia, Mizoguchi, Yūzō, Hamashita, Takeshi, Hiraishi, Naoaki, Miyajima, Hiroshi (eds), Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, Tokyo, p. 7.

2 Important works on Pan-Asianism in Japan include Saaler, Sven and Szpilman, Christopher W. A. (eds). (2011). Pan Asianism: A Documentary History, vols. 1 and 2, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, UK; Hotta, Eri. (2008). Pan-Asianism and Japan's War 1931–1945, Palgrave Macmillan, New York; Saaler, Sven and Koschmann, J. Victor (eds). (2007). Pan-Asianism in Modern Japanese History: Colonialism, Regionalism and Borders, Routledge, New York; Aydin, Cemil. (2007). The Politics of Anti-Westernism in Asia: Visions of World Order in Pan-Islamic and Pan-Asian Thought (Columbia Studies in International and Global History), Columbia University Press, New York; Uemura, Kunihiko. (2006). Ajia wa ‘Ajiateki’ Ka, Nakanishiya Shuppan, Kyoto; Duara, Prasenjit (2001). The discourse of civilization and Pan-Asianism’, Journal of World History, 12 (1): 99130; Hiraishi, Naoaki. (1994). ‘Kindai Nihon no Ajiashugi: Meijiki no shorinen o chūshin ni’ (‘Asianism in modern Japan: Focusing on the various ideas of the Meiji period’) in Ajia kara Kangaeru (5) Kindaikazō, Mizoguchi, Yūzō, Hamashita, Takeshi, Hiraishi, Naoaki, Miyajima, Hiroshi (eds), Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, Tokyo, pp. 265291; and Takeuchi, Yoshimi (ed.). (1963). Gendai Nihon Shisō Taikei 9 Ajiashugi, Chikuma Shobō, Tokyo.

3 Earlier treatments of the New Asianism include: Gluck, Carol. (1994). The call for a new Asian identity: an examination of the cultural arguments and their implications, Carnegie Council on International Affairs: Japan Programs Occasional Papers 5: 36; Hein, Laura and Hammond, Ellen H. (1995). ‘Homing in on Asia: identity in contemporary Japan’, Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 27 (3): 317; Koschmann, J. Victor. (1997), ‘Asianism's Ambivalent Legacy’, in Network Power: Japan and Asia, Katzenstein, Peter and Shiraishi, Takashi (eds), Cornell University Press, Ithaca, pp. 83110; Morris-Suzuki, Tessa. (1998). Invisible countries: Japan and the Asian dream, Asian Studies Review, 22 (1): 522; Duus, Peter. (2001). ‘The New Asianism’, in Can Japan Globalize? Studies on Japan's Changing Political Economy and the Process of Globalization in Honour of Sung-Jo Park, Holzhausen, A. (ed.), Physica-Verlag, New York, pp. 245256; Sven Saaler. (2007). ‘Pan-Asianism in Modern Japanese History: Overcoming the Nation, Creating a Region, Forging an Empire’, in Saaler and Koschmann, Pan-Asianism, pp. 1–18; Terry, Edith. (2002). How Asia Got Rich: Japan, China, and the Asian Miracle, Sharpe, M. E., New York, Chapters. 2–3; Uemura, Ajia wa ‘Ajiateki’ Ka, pp. 256–273.

4 Carol Gluck has described Japan's relations to the outside world as a ‘triangulation’: ‘Asian identity was formed along the axis of Japan, the West, and Asia’. See Gluck, op. cit., p. 3. Gregory Noble identifies three broad positions in the Japanese language-literature: sceptics on the right, optimists on the left, and the majority of centrists who seek ‘active cooperation on the economy and environment, but only cautious moves on politics and security’. In terms of the New Asianist discourse, the optimists on the left correspond roughly with the group categorized here as Japan in Asia advocates and the majority of centrists to the Asia for Japan advocates. See Noble, Gregory. (2008). ‘Japanese and American Perspectives on East Asian Regionalism’, International Relations of the Asia-Pacific 8, 2008, 247.

5 I thank one of the reviewers for suggesting the phrase ‘critical differentiating criterion’.

6 Hatch, Walter and Yamamura, Kozo. (1996). Asia in Japan's Embrace: Building a Regional Production Alliance, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, pp. xi, 28.

7 Mizoguchi, Yūzō, Hamashita, Takeshi, Hiraishi, Naoaki, Miyajima, Hiroshi (eds). (1993–1994). Ajia kara Kangaeru, vols 1–5, Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, Tokyo; Tsuchiya, Kenji, Nakagane, Katsuji, Hagiwara, Yoshiyuki, Hirano, Ken’ichirō (eds). (1994). Kōza Gendai Ajia, vols 1–4, Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, Tokyo; Yokoyama, Hiroaki, et al. (eds). (1996). Gendai Ajia no Shōzō, vols 1–15, Shoten, Iwanami, Tokyo; Hamashita, Takeshi, et al. (eds). (1997–2000). Chiiki no Sekaishi, vols 1–12, Shuppansha, Yamakawa, Tokyo; Nagazumi, Yōko, et al. (eds). (1999–2001). Shirīzu Kokusai Kōryū, vols 1–7, Kokusai Bunka Kōryū Suishin Kyōkai, Tokyo; Omoto, Keiichi, et al. (eds). (2000–2001). Umi no Ajia, vols 1–6, Shoten, Iwanami, Tokyo; Aoki, Tamotsu, et al. (eds). (2002–2003). Ajia Shinseiki, vols 1–8, Shoten, Iwanami, Tokyo; Nagasaki, Nobuko, et al. (eds). (2002–2003). Gendai Minami Ajia, vols 1–6, Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai, Tokyo.

8 It is also worth noting his impact on Asianist thought beyond Japan. See, for instance, Chen, Kuan-Hsing. (2010). Asia as Method: Toward Deimperialization, Duke University Press, Durham.

9 Saaler, Sven and Szpilman, Christopher W. A., ‘Introduction: the Emergence of Pan-Asianism as an Ideal of Asian Identity and Solidarity, 1850–2008’, in Saaler and Szpilman, Pan Asianism: A Documentary History 1, p. 29. On Takeuchi see Calichman, Richard F.. (2004). Takeuchi Yoshimi: Displacing the West, Cornell University East Asia Program, Ithaca; Calichman, Richard F. (ed. and trans.), (2005). What Is Modernity? Writings of Takeuchi Yoshimi, Columbia University Press, New York; Oguma, Eiji. (2002). ‘Minshu’ to ‘Aikoku’: Sengo-Nihon no Nashonarizumu to Kōkyōsei, Shin’yōsha, Tokyo, Chapter 10; Takeuchi, Yoshimi. (1981). Takeuchi Yoshimi Zenshū, vols 1–14, Chikuma Shobō, Tokyo.

10 Takeuchi as translated in Christian Uhl, ‘Takeuchi Yoshimi: Japan's Asianism, 1963’, in Saaler and Szpilman, Pan Asianism: A Documentary History 2, p. 323.

11 Yoshimi Takeuchi, ‘Asia as Method’ in Calichman, What is Modernity, p. 165.

12 Matsumoto Ken’ichi, the public intellectual and scholar of Takeuchi Yoshimi is one of the more creative interpreters of Takeuchi's ideas. For example, in a 2000 work on Takeuchi's influential essay, ‘Japan's Asianism’, Matsumoto interprets Takeuchi's notion of the East ‘repackaging’ the ‘West’ to mean that the East will take the West's will to power, which is apparently something intrinsically Western, and repackage it as ‘love’ (ai), since love is apparently one of the cultural essences of the East. Matsumoto asserts that such repackaging or rewrapping of Western ‘power’ as Asian ‘love’ is an example of the Asian value of ‘symbiosis’ (kyōsei) which has developed organically because of cultural diversity in the region. See Matsumoto, Ken’ichi. (2000). Takeuchi Yoshimi ‘Nihon no Ajiashugi’ Seidoku, Shoten, Iwanami, Tokyo, p. 189. For a critique of Matsumoto's over-interpretation of Takeuchi see Uemura, Ajia wa ‘Ajiateki’ Ka, pp. 261–266.

13 Mahathir quoted in Furuoka, Fumitaka. (2005). Japan and the flying geese pattern of east Asian integration, eastasia.at: Online Journal of the Austrian Association of East Asian Studies 4 (1), digital copy available from the author. On the Look East Policy see Shamsul, A. B. and Smith, Wendy A.. (1995). Studying Japan in Malaysia: the Look East Policy, Social Science Japan 4: 67; Lim, Hua Sing. (1995). Japan's Role in Asia: Issues and Prospects, Times Academic Press, Singapore, pp. 126; and Tann, J. Kok Aun. (1982). I Go East: Learning From the Japanese Experience, Milimex Corporation Publishers, Kuala Lumpur.

14 On the Learn From Japan campaign see Furuoka, Japan and the flying geese; Thang, Leng Leng and Gan, S. K.. (2003). ‘Deconstructing “Japanisation”: reflections from the “Learn From Japan” campaign in Singapore’, New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 5 (1): 91106; Stanley, Thomas A.. (1988). ‘Japan as a Model for Economic Development: the Example of Singapore’ in Japan and the World: Essays on Japanese History and Politics in Honour of Ishida Takeshi, Bernstein, G. L. and Fukui, H. (eds), Macmillan Press Limited, London, pp. 233244; Margolin, Jean-Louis. (1993). ‘Foreign Models in Singapore's Development and the Idea of a Singaporean Model’ in Singapore Changes Guard: Social, Political, and Economic Directions in the 1990s, Rodan, G. (ed.), St Martin's Press, New York, pp. 8498.

15 On the Asian values debate see Milner, Anthony. (2000). ‘What happened to “Asian Values”?’ in Towards Recovery in Pacific Asia, Segal, Gerald and Goodman, David S. G. (eds), Routledge, London, pp. 5668; Subramaniam, Surain. (2000). ‘The Asian values debate: implications for the spread of liberal democracy’, Asian Affairs 27 (1): 1935; Rahim, Lily Zubaidah. (1998). ‘In search of the “Asian way”: cultural nationalism in Singapore and Malaysia’, Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 36 (3): 5473; Katzenstein, Peter J.. (2000). ‘Regionalism and Asia’, New Political Economy, 5 (3): 353368; Zakaria, Fareed. (1994). ‘Culture is Destiny: A Conversation with Lee Kuan Yew’. Foreign Affairs 73 (2): 109126; Mahbubani, Kishore. (1993). ‘The dangers of decadence: what the rest can teach the West’, Foreign Affairs 72 (4): 100111; Roderick MacFarquhar, ‘The post-Confucian challenge’, The Economist, 9 February 1992: 67–72; Mohamad, Mahathir and Ishihara, Shintaro. (1996). The Voice of Asia: Two Leaders Discuss the Coming Century, Kodansha International, Tokyo.

16 Milner, What happened to ‘Asian Values’?, p. 57.

18 By the mid-1990s Mahathir had all but abandoned the Look East policy and was now singing the praises of French industry. Mahathir explained that ‘We want to learn from the French, for instance, in design, sophistication, and so on. We don't want to remain bound to one source’ (i.e. Japan). Quoted in Hatch, Walter F.. (2010). Asia's Flying Geese: How Regionalization Shapes Japan. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, p. 206.

19 Gluck, ‘The call for a new Asian identity’. p. 6.

20 Hein and Hammond, ‘Homing in on Asia’, p. 11. Nihonjinron refers to discourses or theories about the Japanese, especially their so-called distinctive cultural and national characteristics. See Befu, Harumi. (2001). Hegemony of Homogeneity: An Anthropological Analysis of Nihonjinron, Trans Pacific Press, Melbourne; and Dale, Peter. (2012). The Myth of Japanese Uniqueness (Routledge Revivals), Routledge, London.

21 Hein and Hammond, ‘Homing in on Asia’, p. 11.

22 Morris-Suzuki, ‘Invisible countries’, p. 14.

23 See, for example, Gluck, ‘The call for a new Asian identity’, pp. 3–6; Hein and Hammond, ‘Homing in on Asia’, pp. 10–16; Duus, op. cit., p. 250.

24 Ogura, Kazuo. (1993). ‘A call for a new concept of Asia’, Japan Echo 20 (3): 3738. For the original (and complete) Japanese version see Ogura, Kazuo. (1993). ‘Ajia no ‘fukken’ no tame ni’ (‘For the “revival” of Asia’), Chūō Kōron, 108 (8): 6073.

25 Ogura, A call, pp. 39–40.

27 Ibid., p. 41.

28 Ibid., p. 44.

29 Ogura, Kazuo. (1999). ‘Creating a new Asia’, Japan Echo 26 (3): 12.

30 The earlier Japanese version of The Voice of Asia is: Ishihara, Shintaro and Mohamad, Mahathir. (1994). ‘No’ to ieru Ajia: Tai-Ōbei e no Hōsaku, Kōbunsha, Tokyo. Ishihara, Shintaro. (1991). The Japan that Can Say No: Why Japan Will Be First Among Equals, Simon and Schuster, New York. The Japanese original (with the president of Sony Corporation as coauthor) is: Ishihara, Shintaro and Morita, Akio. (1989). ‘No’ to Ieru Nihon: Shin-Nichibei Kankei no Hōsaku, Kobunsha, Tokyo.

31 Hein and Hammond, ‘Homing in on Asia’, p. 6; Terry, How Asia Got Rich, p. 110.

32 Sakakibara, Eisuke. (1995). ‘The end of Progressivism’, Foreign Affairs 74 (5): 14. Also see Sakakibara, Eisuke. (1993). Beyond Capitalism: The Japanese Model of Market Economics, University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland.

33 Kaji, Nobuyuki. (1995). ‘The Confucian roots of Japanese religiousity’, Japan Echo 22 (4): 7374.

34 Commission for a New Asia. (1994). Towards A New Asia: A Report of the Commission for a New Asia, The Commission, Kuala Lumpur, Preface and p. 2.

35 Ibid., p. 3

36 Ibid., pp. 6–9.

37 Japanese Committee on Outlook for A New Asia. (1994). Outlook for a New Asia and Japan's Response: A Report of the Japanese Committee on Outlook for a New Asia to the Commission for a New Asia, The Commission, Kuala Lumpur, p. 5.

38 Shin’ichi Yamamuro. (1998). ‘“Ta ni shite Ichi” no Chitsujo Genri to Nihon no Sentaku’ (‘The ordering principle of “one in the many” and Japan's choice’) in ‘Ajiateki Kachi’ to wa Nanika, Tamotsu Aoki and Keishi Saeki (eds), TBS-Britannica, Tokyo, p. 48.

39 Ibid., p. 58.

41 Ibid., p. 59.

42 Ibid., p. 57.

43 Ibid., p. 55.

44 Ibid., p. 56.

45 Kaeshi Saeki, ‘Ajiateki Kachi’ wa sonzai suru ka, in Ibid., p. 40.

46 Ibid., p. 41.

47 I say provocatively-titled because Hara intentionally uses the Chinese character compound Tōa (東亜) for Asia common in wartime and prewar Japan, instead of the now-standard syllabarized Ajia (アジア). Hara, Yōnosuke. (2002). Shintōaron, NTT Shuppan Kabushiki Kaisha, Tokyo.

48 Ibid., p. 12.

49 Ibid., p. 21.

50 Ibid., p. 12.

51 Ibid., p. 24.

52 Ibid., pp. 32–33.

53 Ibid., p. 31.

54 Shindō, Eiichi. (2007). Higashi Ajia Kyōdōtai o Dō Tsukuru ka, Shobō, Chikuma, Tokyo, p. 253.

55 Ibid., p. 241.

56 Ibid., p. 244.

57 Ibid., p. 242.

58 Ibid., p. 243.

59 Ibid., p. 60.

60 Ibid., p. 57.

61 Ibid., p. 57.

62 Ibid., p. 63.

63 Kang, Sang-jung. (1988). ‘“Nihonteki Orientarizumu” no genzai: kokusaika ni hisomu hizumi’ (‘The present of “Japanese-style Orientalism”: The distortion lurking within internationalization’), Sekai 522: 134.

64 Kang, Sang-jung. (1994). Ajia kara Nihon o Tō (Iwanami Bukkretto), Shoten, Iwanami, Tokyo, p. 3.

65 Ibid., pp. 12–13, 14.

66 Ibid., p. 26.

67 Ibid., p. 27.

68 Ibid., pp. 12–13.

69 Kazuko Mōri, Hideo Kobayashi, Tamotsu Aoki, Sang-jung Kang, Bangfu Mo, Shun’ya Yoshiki. (2003). ‘Ajiagaku no tsukurikata, Ajia no tsukurikata: “Tōyō” kara “Ajia shinseiki” e no kakyō o mezashite’ (‘Making Asian studies, making Asia: In search of a bridge between the “Orient” and the “new Asian century”’) in Aoki, et al. (eds), Ajia Shinseiki 8, p. 6.

70 Wada, Haruki. (2003). Shin Chiikishugi Sengen: Tōhoku Ajia Kyōdō no Ie, Heibonsha, Tokyo, p. 16.

71 Ibid., p. 17.

72 Ibid., p. 28.

73 Kang, Sang-jung. (2001). Tōhoku Ajia no Kyōdō no Ie o Mezashite, Heibonsha, Tokyo, p. 25.

74 Wada, Shin Chiikishugi Sengen, p. 140.

75 Kang, Tōhoku Ajia, p. 33.

76 Ibid., p. 32.

77 On the New Miyazawa and Chiang Mai Initiatives see Ministry of Finance Japan, Japan's Financial Cooperation in Asia: http://www.mof.go.jp/english/international_policy/financial_cooperation_in_asia [Accessed, 7 February 2014]. Also on the Chiang Mai Initiative see: Itō, Ken’ichi and Tanaka, Akihiko (eds). (2005). Higashi Ajia Kyōdōtai to Nihon no Shinro, Nihon Hōsō Shuppan Kyōkai, Tokyo, p. 207; Kohara, Masahiro. (2005). Higashi Ajia Kyōdōtai: Kyōdaika suru Chūgoku to Nihon no Senryaku, Shimbunsha, Nihon Keizai, Tokyo, p. 15; Munakata, Naoko (2006). Transforming East Asia: The Evolution of Regional Economic Integration, Brookings Institution Press, Washington DC, p. 103.

78 Wada, Shin Chiikishugi Sengen, p. 38; Kang, Tōhoku Ajia, p. 39.

79 Kang, Tōhoku Ajia, p. 40.

80 Hamashita, ‘Ajia kenkyū no genzai’, p. 6.

82 Ibid., p. 7.

83 Ibid., pp. 1–2. See, for example, Hamashita, Takeshi (ed). (1999). Higashi Ajia Sekai no Chiiki Nettowāku (Shirīzu Kokusai Kōryū, vol. 3), Kokusai Bunka Kōryū Suishin Kyōkai, Tokyo; Hamashita, Takeshi. (2000). Okinawa Nyūmon: Ajia o Tsunagu Kaikyō Kōzō, Shobō, Chikuma, Tokyo; Hamashita, Takeshi. (1996). Hong Kong: Ajia no Nettowāku Toshi, Shobō, Chikuma, Tokyo; Hamashita, Takeshi. (1997). Chōkō Shisutemu to Kindai Ajia, Shoten, Iwanami, Tokyo; Hamashita, Takeshi (Mark Selden and Linda Grove [eds]). (2008). China, East Asia and the Global Economy: Regional and Historical Perspectives (Asia's Transformations/Critical Asian Scholarship), Routledge, London; Hamashita, Takeshi. (2003). ‘Tribute and Treaties: Maritime Asia and Treaty Port Networks in the Era of Negotiation, 1800–1900’ in The Resurgence of East Asia: 500, 150 and 50 Year Perspectives (Asia's Transformations), Routledge, London, pp. 1750; Takeshi Hamashita, ‘The intra-regional system in East Asia in modern times’, in Katzenstein and Shiraishi, Network Power, pp. 113–135.

84 Hamashita, ‘Ajia kenkyū no genzai’, p. 1.

85 Hamashita, ‘The intra-regional system’, p. 115.

86 Hiraishi, ‘Kindai Nihon no Ajiashugi’, p. 266.

88 Ibid., p. 275. For discussion and a translation of this essay see Kyu Hyun Kim, ‘Tarui Tokichi's arguments on behalf of the union of the Great East, 1893’ in Saaler and Szpilman, Pan Asianism: A Documentary History 1, pp. 73–83; and Takeuchi, Ajiashugi, pp. 32–37. For the original essay see Takeuchi, Ajiashugi, pp. 106–129.

89 Hiraishi, op. cit., pp. 275–276, 278.

90 Ibid., p. 278. But, as Hiraishi honestly admits, Konoe's notion of an Asian Monroe Doctrine also had a utilitarian hue: Japan was a small, resource-poor nation but China promised to become its resource base. See Hiraishi, ‘Kindai Nihon no Ajiashugi’, p. 279. See also Aydin, The Politics of Anti-Westernism in Asia, pp. 54–55; and U. M. Zachmann, ‘Konoe Atsumaro and the idea of an alliance of the yellow race, 1898’ in Saaler and Szpilman, op. cit., vol. 1, pp. 85–92. For the original essay, see Takeuchi, Ajiashugi, pp. 106–129.

91 Hiraishi, ‘Kindai Nihon no Ajiashugi’, p. 281. On Okakura see Tankha, Brij, ‘Okakura Tenshin: “Asia Is One”, 1903’ in Saaler and Szpilman, Pan Asianism: A Documentary History 1, pp. 9399; He, Jing, ‘Okakura Tenshin and Pan-Asianism, 1903–1906’ in Saaler and Szpilman, Pan Asianism: A Documentary History 1, pp. 101111; Takeuchi, Ajiashugi, pp. 42–44; Duara, Prasenjit. (2010). ‘Asia redux’, The Journal of Asian Studies, 69 (4): 969973; Tankha, Brij (ed). (2008). Okakura Tenshin and Pan-Asianism: Shadows of the Past, Brill Global Oriental, Leiden.

92 Hiraishi, ‘Kindai Nihon no Ajiashugi’, p. 281.

93 Yoda, Tomiko and Harootunian, Harry (eds). (2006). Japan After Japan: Social and Cultural Life from the Recessionary 1990s to the Present, Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

94 Okazaki, Hisahiko. (1993). Atarashii Ajia e no Daisenryaku, Shimbunsha, Yomiuri, Tokyo.

95 Ibid., pp. 77, 86.

96 Ibid., p. 105.

97 Ibid., pp. 90–91.

98 Takashi Shiraishi ‘Japan and Southeast Asia’ in Katzenstein and Shiraishi, Network Power, p. 171.

99 Hatch, Asia's Flying Geese, p. 72.

100 Ibid., p. 101.

101 Ibid., p. 143.

102 Okuda Hiroshi. (1999). Ajia Keizai Saisei Misshon’ Hōkokusho: 21 Seiki no Ajia to Kyōsei suru Nippon o Mezashite (Report of the Mission for Revitalization of Asian Economy: Living in Harmony with Asia in the Twenty-first Century): http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/area/asiakeizai/saisei/index.html (for the Japanese version) and http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/economy/asia/mission99/report/index.html (for the English version), [Both accessed 7 February 2014).

103 Noble, ‘Japanese and American perspectives’, p. 257.

104 Okuda, Ajia Keizai Saisei Misshon, Preface.

105 Morishima, Michio. (1995). Nihon no Sentaku, Shoten, Iwanami, Tokyo; Morishima, Michio (1999). Naze Nihon wa Botsuraku suru ka, Shoten, Iwanami, Tokyo; Morishima, Michio. (2001). Nihon ni Dekiru Koto wa Nanika: Higashi Ajia Kyōdōtai o Teian suru, Iwanami Shoten, Tokyo. Also see, in English: Morishima, Michio. (2001). Collaborative Development in Northeast Asia, Palgrave, New York. Morishima was telling a different story in the early 1980s: Morishima, Michio. (1984). Why Has Japan ‘Succeeded’?: Western Technology and the Japanese Ethos, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK.

106 Morishima, Naze Nihon, p. viii.

107 These characterizations of devastation correspond to chapters in Morishima's 1999 book, Naze Nihon.

108 National Institute for Research Advancement (NIRA). (2010). Higashi Ajia no Chiiki Renkei o Kyōka suru, Sōgō Kenkyū Kaihatsu Kikō, Tokyo, p. 10.

109 Ibid., p. 11.

110 Ibid.

111 Ibid., p. 10.

112 Itō, Ken’ichi. (1995). ‘Recipe for Asian unity’, Japan Echo 22 (4): p. 15.

113 Itō and Tanaka, Higashi Ajia Kyōdōtai, p. 50.

114 The EAVG submitted its report on East Asian community to the APT Secretariat in 2001. See East Asia Vision Group. (2001). Towards an East Asian Community: Region of Peace, Prosperity, and Progress: http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/asia-paci/report2001.pdf [Accessed, 7 February 2014].

115 Kohara, Higashi Ajia Kyōdōtai, p. 293.

116 Ibid., p. 294.

117 The Council on East Asian Community (CEAC). (2005). The State of the Concept of East Asian Community and Japan's Strategic Response thereto, The Council on East Asian Community, Tokyo, p. 7. Also see Kohara, Higashi Ajia Kyōdōtai, pp. 293–298.

118 CEAC, The State of the Concept of East Asian Community, p. 7.

119 Kohara, Higashi Ajia Kyōdōtai, p. iv.

120 Ibid., pp. 253–254. Although they are by no means mainstream, it is also worth noting some of the more fantastic proposals for East Asian Community. Morishima Michio, for example, proposes the creation of a United States of East Asia (USEA). See Morishima, Nihon ni Dekiru Koto, p. 189. In terms of international politics, former Ministry of Foreign Affairs official Taniguchi Makoto sees Asia creating a ‘third global standard’ and becoming one ‘pillar’ in a ‘tri-polar global new order’. As examples, Taniguchi foresees Japan, China, and India becoming an ‘Asian presence’ as permanent members on the United Nations Security Council. Similarly, he imagines Japanese, Chinese, and Indians pooling their combined economic might to influence operations of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. See Taniguchi, Makoto. (2004). Higashi Ajia Kyōdōtai: Keizai Tōgō no Yukue to Nihon, Shoten, Iwanami, Tokyo, pp. 218219.

121 Shiraishi, Takashi. (2000). ‘Ajia o dō kangaeru ka’, Chūō Kōron 115 (5): 71. International relations scholar Yamakage Susumu makes a similar point: ‘Japan is not at a crossroads where it must choose between Asia and the United States. The relationship between Asian countries and the United States is not in crisis. . . .’ And, ‘Japan should avoid being forced to choose between Asia and the United States. It is in Japan's interest to promote cooperative institutions that embrace both sides of the Pacific. See Susumu Yamakage, ‘Japan's National Security and Asia-Pacific's Regional Institutions in the Post-Cold War Era’ in Katzenstein and Shiraishi, Network Power, pp. 300–301.

122 Shiraishi, ‘Japan and Southeast Asia’, p. 170.

123 Shiraishi, Takashi. (2009). ‘Higashi Ajia chiiki shisutemu’ in Ajia wa Kawaru no ka Kaiteiban, Matsui, Takafumi and Itō, Ken’ichi (eds), Wedge, Tokyo, p. 88.

124 Shiraishi, Takashi and Hau, Caroline Sy. (2009). ‘Beyond the spell of Asianism’, Japan Echo, 36 (3), p. 32.

125 Ibid., p. 35.

126 Ibid., p. 35; and Shiraishi, ‘Higashi Ajia Chiiki Shisutemu’, p. 88.

127 Itō, op. cit., p. 14.

128 Yamakage, op. cit., p. 301.

129 Takenaka, Heizō. (1995). ‘Can Japan glue together Asia and the Pacific?’, Japan Echo 22 (4): 18.

130 Ibid., p. 22.

131 Funabashi, Yoichi. (1993). ‘The Asianization of Asia’, Foreign Affairs 72 (5), p. 75.

132 Ibid., 77.

133 Ibid., pp. 75, 78.

134 Ibid., pp. 84–85.

135 Morris-Suzuki, ‘Invisible countries’, p. 11.

136 Funabashi, ‘The Asianization of Asia’, p. 78.

137 Shiraishi, ‘Japan and Southeast Asia’, p. 192.

138 T. J. Pempel, ‘Transpacific torii: Japan and the emerging Asian regionalism’, in Katzenstein and Shiraishi, Network Power, p. 51. Not all agreed. As Yamakage Susumu argued in the same volume, ‘There is a vital shortcoming in this proposal. If relationships deteriorate, few governments, if any, in Asia will trust or want Japan to mediate between the United States and themselves. They believe that they can deal with Americans as well as, and probably better than, the Japanese’. Yamakage, Japan's National Security, p. 301.

139 One group not discussed in this paper consists of those who reject processes of East Asian community-building and regional integration outright. See Noble, Japanese and American perspectives, pp. 253–255 for an excellent analysis of these antagonistic positions. A recent example is Watanabe, Toshio. (2008). Shin Datsu A Ron, Shunjū, Bungei, Tokyo.

140 Nevertheless, some Japanese advocates of East Asian community have begun to think about creating a legal infrastructure, going so far as to draft an ‘East Asian Community Constitution’ (Higashi Ajia Kyōdōtai Kenshō). See Nakamura, Tamio, Usui, Yōichirō, and Satō, Yoshiaki, Suami, Takao. (2008). Higashi Ajia Kyōdōtai Kenshōan, Shōwadō, Kyoto.

141 On public opinion see Duus, ‘The New Asianism’, pp. 251–255, and Noble, Japanese and American perspectives, pp. 258–259.

142 Terry, How Asia Got Rich, p. 6.

143 Ibid., p. 16.

144 Noble, ‘Japanese and American perspectives’, p. 252.

145 Ching, Leo. (2000). ‘Globalizing the regional, regionalizing the global: mass culture and Asianism in the age of late capital’, Public Culture 12 (1): 257.

146 Rahim, ‘In search of the “Asian way”’, pp. 60–61.

147 Uemura, Ajia wa ‘Ajiateki’ Ka, pp. 269–70.

148 Ibid., p. 266.

149 Ibid., p. 269.

* This work was supported by the Academy of Korean Studies Grant funded by the Korean Government (MEST) (AKS-2013-DZZ-3103). For their thoughtful comments and feedback on earlier drafts I thank Sunil Amrith, Cemil Aydin, Sebastian Conrad, Prasenjit Duara, Bai Gao, Engseng Ho, Keunsik Jung, Michael Kim, Carlos Rojas, Dominic Sachsenmaier, C. J. Wee Wan-ling, Jin Yan, and participants in the workshop series Regionalisms and East Asia/Critical Perspectives on Regionalism. I am also grateful to the two anonymous reviewers for their numerous suggestions and constructive criticisms.

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