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Embodying the Nation of Islam

  • Edward E. Curtis


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1 To understand how much of urban African American rumor and folklore is dominated by “metaphors linking the fate of the black race to the fates of black bodies,” see Turner, Patricia, I Heard It through the Grapevine: Rumor in African-American Culture (Berkeley, CA, 1993).

2 Giddings, Paula, When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America (New York, 1984), 1730.

3 Curtis, Edward E. IV, Black Muslim Religion in the Nation of Islam, 1960–1975 (Chapel Hill, NC, 2006), 96–8.

4 Ibid., 98–109.

5 Ibid., 105–9.

6 Ibid., 114.

7 McGuire, Danielle L., At the Dark End of the Street: Black Women, Rape, and Resistance—A New History of the Civil Rights Movement from Rosa Parks to the Rise of Black Power (New York, 2011).

8 Curtis, Black Muslim Religion, 118–30.

9 Ibid., 132–53.

10 See further McCloud, Sean, Making the American Religious Fringe: Exotics, Subversives, and Journalists, 1955–1993 (Chapel Hill, NC, 2004), 5594.

11 Von Eschen, Penny M., Race against Empire: Black Americans and Anticolonialism, 1937–1957 (Ithaca, NY, 1997), 174.

12 See Marable, Manning, Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention (New York, 2011).

13 Federal Bureau of Investigation, “Nation of Islam,” Central Research Section, Federal Bureau of Investigation, October 1960, 61–2, in “Nation of Islam Part 1 of 3,” FBI Records: The Vault, (accessed Dec. 18, 2017).

14 Ibid., 60.

15 Curtis, Edward E. IV, “The Black Muslim Scare of the Twentieth Century: The History of State Islamophobia and Post-9/11 Variations,” in Islamophobia in America: The Anatomy of Intolerance, ed. Ernst, Carl W., (New York, 2013), 75106.

16 A useful introduction to the dominance of public Protestantism can be found in Albanese, Catherine L., America: Religions and Religion, 3rd ed. (Belmont, CA, 1999), 396431. See also Handy, Robert T., A Christian America: Protestant Hopes and Historical Realities, 2nd ed. (New York, 1984); Marty, Martin E., Protestantism in the United States: Righteous Empire, 2nd ed. (New York, 1986); and Tuveson, Ernest Lee, Redeemer Nation: The Idea of America's Millennial Role (Chicago, 1968).


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Embodying the Nation of Islam

  • Edward E. Curtis


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