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Ontology deals with questions concerning what things exist, and how such things may be associated according to similarities and differences and related within a hierarchy. Ontology provides a rigorous way to develop a general definition of a mineral species. Properties may be divided into two principal groups: an intrinsic property is characteristic of the object and is independent of anything else; an extrinsic property depends on the relation between the object and other things. A universal is an entity that is common to all objects in a set. Here the objects are mineral samples, each entity is a specific property of these minerals, and the set of objects is all mineral samples of that mineral species. The key intrinsic properties of a mineral species are its name, its end-member formula and Z (the number of formula units in the unit cell), its space group and the bond topology of the end-member structure. These are also universals as they are common to all mineral samples belonging to that mineral species. An archetype is a pure form which embodies the fundamental characteristics of an object. Thus the archetype of a mineral species embodies the above set of universals. Real mineral samples of this mineral species are imperfect copies of that archetype, with a range of chemical composition defined by the boundaries between end-member formulae of this and other end members of the same bond topology. The result is a formal definition of a mineral species: A specific mineral species is the set of imperfect copies of the corresponding archetype and is defined by the following set of universals: name, end-member formula and Z, space group, and bond topology of the end-member structure, with the range of chemical composition limited by the compositional boundaries between end members with the same bond topology.
The paper presents detailed mineralogical and structural characteristics of novograblenovite that occurs abundantly on a burning coal dump at Radlin, Upper Silesia, Poland. Our results indicate that NH4MgCl3⋅6H2O is the proper formula of this mineral. The thermal behaviour of novograblenovite shows a two-step dehydration at 155 and 193°C and sublimation of NH4Cl at 341°C. A Raman spectrum, obtained for the first time, reveals the normal modes of H2O and NH4+ vibrations. The crystal structure of novograblenovite was refined on the basis of high quality X-ray diffraction data. The final discrepancy factor wR2 was 0.0567 for 94 parameters and 1464 independent reflections. The structure has a monoclinic C2/c space group symmetry with the following unit cell parameters: a = 9.2709(3) Å, b = 9.5361(2) Å, c = 13.2741(4) Å and β = 90.054(3)°. We were able to specify the architecture of the disordered NH4+ cation located at the symmetry centre. This led to reasonable parameters for the H-bonding formed by this cation. In carnallite the K+ cations occupy an identical space to the ammonium ion in novograblenovite, but when embedded into the latter crystal structure it is bound less tightly. Voids occupy 14% of the space in the novograblenovite crystal structure. Novograblenovite is exactly the same phase as the ‘redikortsevite’ described previously from Chelabinsk coal dumps and this informally introduced name should be abandoned.
Galeaclolusite, [Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)4]⋅8H2O, is a new secondary hydrated aluminium arsenate mineral from Cap Garonne, Var, France. It forms crusts and spheroids of white fibres up to 50 μm long by 0.4 μm wide and only 0.1 μm thick. The fibres are elongated along  and flattened on (100). The calculated density is 2.27 g⋅cm–3. Optically, galeaclolusite is biaxial with α = 1.550(5), β not determined, γ = 1.570(5) (white light) and partial orientation: Z = c (fibre axis). Electron microprobe analyses coupled with crystal structure refinement results gives an empirical formula based on 33 O atoms of Al5.72Si0.08As2.88O33H34.12. Galeaclolusite is orthorhombic, Pnma, with a = 19.855(4), b = 17.6933(11), c = 7.7799(5) Å, V = 2733.0(7) Å3 and Z = 4. The crystal structure of galeaclolusite was established from its close relationship to bulachite and refined using synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data. It is based on heteropolyhedral layers, parallel to (100), of composition Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)4 and with H-bonded H2O between the layers. The layers contain  spiral chains of edge-shared octahedra, decorated with corner-connected AsO4 tetrahedra, that are the same as in the mineral liskeardite.
The paper investigates trace elements and crystal-rich fluid inclusions in spodumene from rare-metal pegmatites of the Kolmozero lithium deposit in the Kola region, Russia. The main lithium mineral in the pegmatites is spodumene, which occurs in three generations, designated as Spd-I, Spd-II and Spd-III. Iron, Na and Mn are the most typical element impurities in spodumene. The Fe/Mn ratio is 7.1 in Spd-I, 12.3 in Spd-II and 13.2 in Spd-III. Spd-II contains fluid and crystal-rich fluid inclusions. The crystal-rich fluid inclusions in Spd-II originally trapped CO2-bearing aqueous fluids with dissolved alkali carbonates. The crystal-rich fluid inclusions contain zabuyelite (Li2CO3) and cristobalite (SiO2) as solid phases, which have not been reported previously from the Kolmozero rare-metal pegmatites. These minerals are assumed to have resulted from a reaction between a CO2-bearing aqueous fluid and host Spd-II and are not related to the mineral-forming system of pegmatites.
Panskyite, Pd9Ag2Pb2S4, is a new mineral (IMA2020–039) discovered in the platinum-group element mineralisation of the Southern Kievey ore occurrence of the Fedorova–Pana layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula, Russia. It forms tiny anhedral grains (of 0.5 to 10 μm in size) in the interstices of rock-forming silicates, often forming tiny inclusions in base-metal sulfides (millerite, chalcopyrite, bornite and chalcocite) and complex intergrowths with other platinum group minerals (zvyagintsevite, laflammeite, vysotskite, thalhammerite, unnamed phase Pd9Ag2(Tl,Pb)2S4 and others). In plane-polarised light, panskyite is creamy white with weak bireflectance, weak pleochroism and distinct anisotropy with brown to grey rotation tints; it exhibits no internal reflections. Reflectance values for panskyite in air (R1, R2 in %) are: 43.8, 44.1 at 470 nm; 44.4, 44.7 at 546 nm; 45.6, 45.8 at 589 nm; and 47.2, 47.2 at 650 nm. Twelve electron-microprobe analyses of panskyite gave an average composition: Pd 55.61, Ag 12.36, Pb 23.50, Fe 0.21, Ni 0.24 and S 7.17 total 99.09 wt.%, corresponding to the formula (Pd9.05Fe0.07Ni0.07)Σ9.19Ag1.98Pb1.96S3.87 based on 17 atoms; the average of nine analyses on the synthetic analogue is: Pd 57.02, Ag 14.17, Pb 21.81 and S 7.44, total 100.44 wt.%, corresponding to Pd9.07Ag2.22Pb1.78S3.93. The density, calculated on the basis of the empirical formula, is 9.81 g/cm3. The mineral is tetragonal, space group I4/mmm, with a = 7.973(3), c = 9.139(3) Å, V = 581.0(4) Å3 and Z = 2. The crystal structure was solved from the single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction data of synthetic Pd9Ag2Pb2S4. Panskyite is isostructural with thalhammerite (Pd9Ag2Bi2S4). The mineral name is for the locality, the Pansky massif of the Fedorova–Pana layered intrusion in the Kola Peninsula, Russia.
Beryl from Xuebaoding, Sichuan Province, western China is known for its unusual tabular habit and W–Sn–Be paragenesis in a greisen-type deposit. The crystals are typically colourless transparent to pale blue, often with screw dislocations of hexagonal symmetry on the (0001) crystal faces. Combining electron microprobe analyses and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), correlated with Raman and micro-infrared (IR) spectroscopy and imaging, the crystal chemical characteristics are determined. The contents of Na+ (0.24–0.38 atoms per formula unit (apfu)) and Li+ up to 0.38 apfu are at the high end compared to beryl from other localities worldwide. Li+ substitution for Be2+ on the tetrahedral (T2) site is predominantly charge balanced by Na+ on the smaller channel (C2) site, with Na+ ranging from 91.5% to 99.7% (apfu) of the sum of all other alkali elements. Cs+ and minor Rb+ and K+ primarily charge balance the minor M2+ substitution for Al3+ at the A site; all iron at the A site is suggested to be trivalent. The a axis ranges from 9.2161(2) to 9.2171(4) Å, with unit-cell volume from 678.03(3) to 678.48(7) Å3. The c/a ratio of 1.0002–1.0005 is characteristic for T2-type beryl with unit-cell parameters controlled primarily by Be2+ substitution. Transmission micro-IR vibrational spectroscopy and imaging identifies coordination of one or two water molecules to Na+ (type IIs and type IId, respectively) as well as alkali free water (type I). Based on IR absorption cross section and XRD a C1 site water content of 0.4–0.5 apfu is derived, i.e. close to 50% site occupancy. Secondary crystal phases with a decrease in Fe and Mg, yet increase in Na, suggest early crystallisation of aquamarine, with goshenite being late. With similar crystal chemistry to beryl of columnar habit from other localities worldwide, the tabular habit of Xuebaoding beryl seems to be unrelated to chemical composition and alkali content.
The new mineral hrabákite (IMA2020-034) was found in siderite–sphalerite gangue with minor dolomite–ankerite at the dump of shaft No. 9, one of the mines in the abandoned Příbram uranium and base-metal district, central Bohemia, Czech Republic. Hrabákite is associated with Pb-rich tučekite, Hg-rich silver, stephanite, nickeline, millerite, gersdorffite, sphalerite and galena. The new mineral occurs as rare prismatic crystals up to 120 μm in size and allotriomorphic grains. Hrabákite is grey with a brownish tint. Mohs hardness is ca. 5–6; the calculated density is 6.37 g.cm–3. In reflected light, hrabákite is grey with a brown hue. Bireflectance is weak and pleochroism was not observed. Anisotropy under crossed polars is very weak (brownish tints) to absent. Internal reflections were not observed. Reflectance values of hrabákite in air (Rmin–Rmax, %) are: 39.6–42.5 at 470 nm, 45.0–47.5 at 546 nm, 46.9–49.2 at 589 nm and 48.9–51.2 at 650 nm). The empirical formula for hrabákite, based on electron-microprobe analyses (n = 11), is (Ni8.91Co0.09Fe0.03)9.03(Pb0.94Hg0.04)0.98(Sb0.91As0.08)0.99S7.99. The ideal formula is Ni9PbSbS8, which requires Ni 47.44, Pb 18.60, Sb 10.93 and S 23.03, total of 100.00 wt.%. Hrabákite is tetragonal, P4/mmm, a = 7.3085(4), c = 5.3969(3) Å, with V = 288.27(3) Å3 and Z = 1. The strongest reflections of the calculated powder X-ray diffraction pattern [d, Å (I)(hkl)] are: 3.6543(57)(200); 3.2685(68)(210); 2.7957(100)(211); 2.3920(87)(112); 2.3112(78)(310); 1.8663(74)(222); and 1.8083(71)(302). According to the single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (Rint = 0.0218), the unit cell of hrabákite is undoubtedly similar to the cell reported for tučekite. The structure contains four metal cation sites, two Sb (Sb1 dominated by Pb2+) and two Ni (with minor Co2+ content) sites. The close similarity in metrics between hrabákite and tučekite is due to similar bond lengths of Pb–S and Sb–S pairs. Hrabákite is named after Josef Hrabák, the former professor of the Příbram Mining College.
Scar Crags and Dale Head North in the English Lake District host mineralised veins enriched in ‘Energy Critical Elements’ (ECEs) specifically, bismuth, cobalt and copper. A limited number of studies in the 1970s investigated the mineralogy and inferred the genesis of these veins as being related to the intrusion of the Lake District batholith.
This study investigates the geology, mineralogy, composition and paragenesis of these two mineralised areas. The results highlight the ubiquitous presence of Co–Fe–Ni-sulfarsenides in both deposits and the presence of some mineral species, hitherto unreported. Scar Crags samples contained high concentrations of cobalt, commonly present within arsenopyrite, whereas cobalt is of minor importance at Dale Head North, where copper and arsenic are the primary metals. A sequence of events, with As–Co–Ni-bearing fluids infilling the veins after an initial stage of quartz and chlorite precipitation is the most striking resemblance between the two mineralised systems, potentially indicating a common process for Co-rich vein-type deposits in the area. If so, understanding such processes could prove vital in aiding exploration in other terranes.
The new alluaudite-group mineral calciojohillerite is one of the major arsenates in sublimates of the Arsenatnaya fumarole at the Second scoria cone of the Northern Breakthrough of the Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption, Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. In middle zones of the fumarole, calciojohillerite is associated with hematite, tenorite, johillerite, nickenichite, bradaczekite, badalovite, tilasite, lammerite, ericlaxmanite, aphthitalite-group sulfates, langbeinite, calciolangbeinite, anhydrite, sanidine, fluorophlogopite, fluoborite, cassiterite, pseudobrookite, rutile, sylvite and halite. In deep zones it occurs in association with anhydrite, diopside, hematite, svabite, berzeliite, schäferite, forsterite, magnesioferrite, ludwigite, rhabdoborite-group fluoroborates, powellite, baryte, fluorapatite, udinaite, arsenudinaite and paraberzeliite. Calciojohillerite forms prismatic crystals up to 1 cm long, their aggregates and crystal crusts up to 0.5 m2. It is transparent, colourless, pale green, pale yellow, light blue, pale lilac or pink, with vitreous lustre. The mineral is brittle, with imperfect cleavage. The Mohs hardness is 3½. Dcalc is 3.915 g cm–3. Calciojohillerite is optically biaxial (–), α = 1.719(3), β = γ = 1.732(3); 2Vmeas. = 15(10)°. Chemical composition (wt.%, electron-microprobe; holotype) is: Na2O 7.32, K2O 0.10, CaO 6.82, MgO 20.31, MnO 0.68, CuO 0.27, ZnO 0.02, Al2O3 0.56, Fe2O3 3.53, TiO2 0.01, SiO2 0.03, P2O5 1.25, V2O5 0.10, As2O5 58.77, SO3 0.13, total 99.90. The empirical formula based on 12 O atoms is (Na1.30K0.01Ca0.67Mg2.78Mn0.05Cu0.02Al0.06Fe3+0.24)Σ5.13(As2.83P0.10S0.01V0.01)Σ2.95O12. Calciojohillerite is monoclinic, C2/c, a = 11.8405(3), b = 12.7836(2), c = 6.69165(16) Å, β = 112.425(3)°, V = 936.29(4) Å3 and Z = 4. The crystal structure was solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, R1 = 0.0227. Calciojohillerite is isostructural with other alluaudite-group minerals. Its simplified crystal chemical formula is A(1)CaA(1)′□A(2)□A(2)′NaM(1)MgM(2)Mg2(AsO4)3 (□ = vacancy). The idealised formula is NaCaMg3(AsO4)3, or, according to the nomenclature of alluaudite-group arsenates, NaCaMgMg2(AsO4)3. Calciojohillerite is named as an analogue of johillerite NaCu2+MgMg2(AsO4)3 with species-defining Ca instead of Cu in the ideal formula.
The margarosanite group (now officially confirmed by IMA-CNMNC) consists of triclinic Ca-(Ba, Pb) cyclosilicates with three-membered [Si3O9]6– rings (3R), with the general formula AB2Si3O9, where A = Pb, Ba and Ca and B = Ca. A closest-packed arrangement of O atoms parallel to (101) hosts Si and B cations in interstitial sites in alternating layers. The 3R layer has three independent Si sites in each ring. Divalent cations occupy three independent sites: Ca in B occupies two nonequivalent sites, Ca1 (8-fold coordinated), and Ca2 (6-fold coordinated). A (=Ca3) is occupied by Pb2+ (or Ba2+) in 6+4 coordination, or 6+1 when occupied by Ca; this third site occurs within the 3R-layer in a peripheral position. Three minerals belong to this group: margarosanite (ideally PbCa2Si3O9), walstromite (BaCa2Si3O9) and breyite (CaCa2Si3O9). So far, no solid solutions involving the Ca1 and Ca2 sites have been described. Therefore, root names depend on the composition of the Ca3 site only. Isomorphic replacement at the Ca3 sites has been noted. We here report data on a skarn sample from the Jakobsberg Mn–Fe oxide deposit, in Värmland, Sweden, representing intermediate compositions on the walstromite–margarosanite binary, in the range ca. 50–70% mol.% BaCa2Si3O9. The Pb-rich walstromite is associated closely with celsian, phlogopite, andradite, vesuvianite, diopside and nasonite. A crystal-structure refinement (R1 = 4.8%) confirmed the structure type, and showed that the Ca3 (Ba, Pb) site is split into two positions separated by 0.39 Å, with the Ba atoms found slightly more peripheral to the 3R-layers.
Dobrovolskyite, Na4Ca(SO4)3, is a new sulfate mineral from the Great Tolbachik fissure eruption, Kamchatka peninsula, Russia. It occurs as aggregates of tabular crystals up to 1–2 mm in maximum dimension, with abundant gas inclusions. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of O = 12 is (Na3.90K0.10)Σ4(Ca0.45Mg0.16Cu0.12Na0.10)Σ0.83S3.08O12. The crystal structure of dobrovolskyite was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data as: trigonal, R3, a = 15.7223(2), c = 22.0160(5) Å, V = 4713.1(2) Å3, Z = 18 and R1 = 0.072. The Mohs’ hardness is 3.5. The mineral is uniaxial (+), with ω = 1.489(2) and ɛ = 1.491(2) (λ = 589 nm). The seven strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [d, Å (I, %)(hkl)] are: 11.58(40)(101); 5.79(22)(202); 4.54(18)(030); 3.86(88)(033); 3.67(32)(006); 2.855(50)(306); and 2.682(100)(330). The mineral is named in honour of Prof. Dr. Vladimir Vitalievich Dolivo-Dobrovolsky (1927–2009), one of the leading Russian scientists in the field of petrology, crystal optics and crystal chemistry. The crystal structure of dobrovolskyite can be described as composed of three symmetrically independent rods running parallel to the c axis. The rods consist of six octahedral–tetrahedral [Na(SO4)6]11– or [Ca(SO4)6]10– clusters of central octahedra sharing common corners with six adjacent SO4 tetrahedra. Alternatively, the crystal structure of the mineral can be described as a 12-layer ABACABACABAC eutactic array of Na+ and Ca2+ cations, and vacancies with disordered (SO4) tetrahedra in interstices. Dobrovolskyite and similar minerals probably formed upon cooling of a high-temperature phase with disordered cation and anion arrangements.
A gem-quality purplish-red tourmaline sample of alleged liddicoatitic composition from the Anjanabonoina pegmatite, Madagascar, has been fully characterised using a multi-analytical approach to define its crystal-chemical identity. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction, chemical and spectroscopic analysis resulted in the formula: X(Na0.41□0.35Ca0.24)Σ1.00Y(Al1.81Li1.00Fe3+0.04Mn3+0.02Mn2+0.12Ti0.004)Σ3.00ZAl6 [T(Si5.60B0.40)Σ6.00O18] (BO3)3 (OH)3W[(OH)0.50F0.13O0.37]Σ1.00 which corresponds to the tourmaline species elbaite having the typical space group R3m and relatively small unit-cell dimensions, a = 15.7935(4) Å, c = 7.0860(2) Å and V = 7.0860(2) Å3.
Optical absorption spectroscopy showed that the purplish-red colour is caused by minor amounts of Mn3+ (Mn2O3 = 0.20 wt.%). Thermal treatment in air up to 750°C strongly intensified the colour of the sample due to the oxidation of all Mn2+ to Mn3+ (Mn2O3 up to 1.21 wt.%). Based on infrared and Raman data, a crystal-chemical model regarding the electrostatic interaction between the X cation and W anion, and involving the Y cations as well, is proposed to explain the absence or rarity of the mineral species ‘liddicoatite’.
Kufahrite, PtPb, is a new mineral (IMA2020-045) from the Ledyanoy Creek placer, Koryak Highlands, Russia. The mineral was found in isoferroplatinum (Pt3Fe) grains extracted from a heavy-mineral concentrate, together with tetraferroplatinum (PtFe), tulameenite (Pt2FeCu), native iridium, hollingworthite (RhAsS) and Cr-rich spinel. Kufahrite occurs as part of alteration rims which are formed together with tetraferroplatinum after isoferroplatinum, or as grains up to 150 μm in size. According to powder X-ray diffraction analyses kufahrite is isotypic to its synthetic analogue, it is hexagonal and crystallises in space group P63/mmc adopting the nickeline structure type. Its unit-cell parameters are: a = 4.2492(6) Å; c = 5.486(6) Å; V = 85.78 Å3 and Z = 2. The calculated density is 14.80 g/cm–3. The strongest diffraction lines are [d, Å (I, %) (hkl)]: 3.052 (80) (101), 2.197 (100) (102), 2.125 (28) (110), 1.747 (18) (210), 1.528 (35) (202), 1.240 (18) (212) and 0.958 (22) (312). The Vickers hardness is 295 kg/mm2 (range 262–320, n = 5), corresponding to a Mohs hardness of 4. The empirical formula of kufahrite, calculated from a mean value of 23 electron-microprobe analyses is (Pt0.94Rh0.04)Σ0.98(Pb0.83Sb0.19)Σ1.02. The name (pronounced as [ku fa rait]) honours Fahrid Shakirovitch Kutyev (1943‒1993), a geologist from the Institute of Volcanology of USSR Academy of Sciences, who played a key role in the discovery of the Koryak–Kamchatka Platinum Belt, including the Ledyanoy Creek placer platinum deposit, where the new mineral has been discovered.
Hydration processes of primary anhydrous minerals as well as dehydration of the hydrated phases are relevant not only for answering geochemical and petrological questions, but are also interesting in the context of the theory of the ‘Evolution of minerals’. Our study of the evolution of anhydrous exhalative sulfates in hydration and dehydration processes has demonstrated the complexity of the processes for a number of minerals from the active high-temperature fumaroles of Tolbachik volcano (chalcocyanite Cu(SO4), dolerophanite Cu2O(SO4), alumoklyuchevskite K3Cu3AlO2(SO4)4 and itelmenite Na2CuMg2(SO4)4). Hydration and dehydration experiments were carried out for all four minerals using powder X-ray diffraction. A typical structural characteristic of several anhydrous copper sulfate minerals of fumarolic origin is the presence of oxygen-centred OCu4 tetrahedra. These are absent in the structures of all known hydrated minerals or synthetic compounds of the class under consideration. Hydration of minerals initially containing O2– anions as part of oxocomplexes, proceeds with sequential formation of a large series of hydroxysalts. On the contrary, hydration of itelmenite with its relatively complex ‘initial’ structure, but without additional oxygen atoms that are strong Lewis bases, results in formation of simpler hydrates. The lower the temperature and the larger the excess of water, the stronger the tendency of the cations to adopt higher hydration numbers thus outcompeting the sulfate anions as ligands. Ultimately, the water molecules completely expel the bridging sulfate anions from the metal coordination sphere yielding relatively simple fully hydrated structures.