Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Mineral phases and element composition of the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora polytropa

  • O. W. Purvis (a1), B. Pawlik-Skowrońska (a2), G. Cressey (a1), G. C. Jones (a1), A. Kearsley (a1) and J. Spratt (a1)...

Abstract

Mineral phases and element localization were investigated in the vivid turquoise-coloured lichen, Lecanora polytropa, sampled from a psammite boulder in a wall supporting mine spoil at the abandoned copper mine, Riddarhyttan Kopparverke, southern Sweden. Normally pale yellowish (usnic acid), the lichen is turquoise coloured internally with bluish inclusions. X-ray mapping shows that Cu occurs on and within the lichen and does not coincide with P or S, suggesting that it is indeed associated with carbon or other elements not detected (or reported) using X-ray mapping. Scanning electron microscopy in back-scatter mode confirmed that the greatest Cu concentrations occur in the form of crystalline aggregates in coloured inclusions below the major internal turquoise layer with smaller Cu contents. X-ray diffraction with a position-sensitive detector (XRD-PSD) confirmed coloured crystalline aggregates consisted of the copper oxalate, moolooite. The study confirms the value of XRD-PSD as a non-destructive tool to characterize small (~50 μm) metal oxalate inclusions obtained from within lichen samples.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Alstrup, V. and Hansen, E.S. (1977) Three species of lichens tolerant of high concentrations of copper. Oikos, 29, 290293.
Andersson, U.B. (2004) The Bastnds-type REE Mineralisations in North-western Bergslagen, Sweden — A Summary with Geological Background and Excursion Guide. Rapporter och meddelanden 119. Ostervala, Sveriges Geologiska Undersoking.
Ascaso, C, Galvan, J. and Ortega, C. (1982) The weathering of calcareous rocks by lichens. Pedobiologia, 24, 219.
Branquinho, C, Catarino, F., Brown, D.H., Pereira, M.J. and Soares, A. (1999) Improving the use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric metal pollution. Science of the Total Environment, 232, 6777.
Callahan, D.L., Baker, A.J.M., Kolev, S.D. and Wedd, A.G. (2006) Metal ion ligands in hyperaccumulating plants. Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, 11, 212.
Chisholm, J.E., Jones, G.C. and Purvis, O.W. (1987) Hydrated copper oxalate, moolooite, in lichens. Mineralogical Magazine, 51, 715718.
Czehura, SJ. (1977) A lichen indicator of copper mineralization, Lights Creek District, Plumas County, California. Economic Geology, 72, 796803.
Elix, J.A. (1996) Biochemistry and secondary metabolites. Pp. 154180 in: Lichen Biology (Nash, T.H., editor), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Haas, J.R. and Purvis, O.W. (2006) Lichen Biogeochemistry. Pp. 344376 in: Fungi in Biogeochemical Cycles (Gadd, G.M., editor) Cambridge, Cambridge University, UK.
Huneck, S. and Yoshimura, I. (1996) Identification of Lichen Substances. Springer, Berlin.
Jenkins, D.A., Johnson, A.H. and Freeman, C. (2000) Mynydd Parys Cu-Pb-Zn Mines: mineralogy, microbiology and acid mine drainage. Pp. 161 — 179 in: Environmental Mineralogy: Microbial Interactions, Anthropogenic Influences, Contaminated Land and Waste Management (Cotter-Howells, J.D., Campbell, L.S. Valsami-Jones, E. and Batchelder, M., editors). Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland, London.
Jones, D., Wilson, M.J. and Tait, J.M. (1980) Weathering of a basalt by Pertusaria corallina. The Lichenologist, 12, 277.
McLean, J., Purvis, O.W., Williamson, B.J. and Bailey, E.H. (1998) Role for lichen melanins in uranium remediation. Nature, 391, 649650.
Morelli, E. and Scarano, G. (2004) Copper-induced changes of non-protein thiols and antioxidant enzymes in the marine microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Plant Science, 167, 289296.
Nash, T.H. (1996) Lichen Biology. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, UK.
Pawlik-Skowronska, B., Purvis, O.W., Pirszel, J. and Skowronski, T. (2006) Cellular mechanisms of Cu-tolerance in the epilithic lichen Lecanora polytropa growing at a copper mine. The Lichenologist, 38, 267275.
Poelt, J. (1955) Flechten der Schwarzen Wand in der Grossarl. Verhandlung Zoologische-Botanische Gesellschaft, 95, 107113.
Purvis, O.W. (1984) The occurrence of copper oxalate in lichens growing on copper sulphide-bearing rocks in Scandinavia. The Lichenologist, 16, 197204.
Purvis, O.W. (1985) The Effect of Mineralization on Lichen Communities with Special Reference to Cupriferous Substrata. Department of Geology, Royal School of Mines. Imperial College, London.
Purvis, O.W. (1993) The botanical interest of mine spoil heaps — the lichen story. Journal of the Russell Society, 5, 4548.
Purvis, O.W. (1996) Interactions of lichens with metals. Science Progress, 79, 283309.
Purvis, O.W. and Halls, C. (1996) A review of lichens in metal-enriched environments. The Lichenologist, 28, 571601.
Purvis, O.W. and James, P.W. (1985) Lichens of the Coniston copper mines. The Lichenologist, 17, 221237.
Purvis, O.W. and Pawlik-Skowronska, B. (2008) Lichens and metals. Pp. 175200 in: Stress in Fungi (van West, P., Stratford, M. and Avery, S., editors). Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Purvis, O.W., Gilbert, O.L. and James, P.W. (1985) The influence of copper mineralization on Acarospora smaragdula. The Lichenologist, 17, 111 — 114.
Purvis, O.W., Elix, J.A., Broomhead, J.A. and Jones, G.C. (1987) The occurrence of copper norstictic acid in lichens from cupriferous substrata. The Lichenologist, 19, 193203.
Purvis, O.W., Elix, J.A. and Gaul, K.L. (1990) The occurrence of copper-psoromic acid in lichens from cupriferous substrata. The Lichenologist, 22, 345354.
Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L.H., James, P.W. and Moore, D.M. (eds) (1992) The Lichen Flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Natural History Museum Publications in association with the British Lichen Society, London.
Purvis, O.W., Bailey, E.H., McLean, J., Kasama, T. and Williamson, B.J. (2004) Uranium biosorption by the lichen Trapelia involuta at a uranium mine. Geomicrobiology Journal, 21, 159167.
Ryan, B.D. and Nash III, T.H. (1993) Lecanora section Placodium (lichenized ascomycotina) in North America: new taxa in the L. garovaglii Group. Bryologist, 96, 288298.
Ryback, G. and Tandy, P. (1992) Eighth supplementary list of British Isles Minerals (English). Mineralogical Magazine, 56, 261275.
Sanita di Toppi, L., Gremigni, P., Pawlik-Skowronska, B., Prasad, M.N.S. and Cobbett, C.S. (2003) Response to heavy metals in plants: a molecular approach. Pp. 133156 in: Abiotic Stresses in Plants (Sanita di Toppi, L. and Pawlik-Skowronska, B., editors). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Sarret, G., Manceau, A., Cuny, D., van Haluwyn, C, Deruelle, S., Hazemann, J.L., Soldo, Y., Eybert-Berard, L. and Menthonnex, J.J. (1998) Mechanisms of lichen resistance to metallic pollution. Environmental Science and Technology, 32, 33253330.
Soare, L.C., Bowen, P., Lemaitre, J. and Hofmann, H. (2006) Precipitation of nanostructured copper oxalate: substructure and growth mechanism. Journal of Physical Chemistry, B110, 1776317771.
Stanley, C.J. (1979) Mineralogical studies of copper, lead, zinc and cobalt mineralisation in the English Lake District. PhD thesis, University of Aston, Birmingham, UK.
Takani, M., Yajima, T., Masuda, H. and Yamauchi, O. (2002) Spectroscopic and structural characterization of copper(II) and palladium(II) complexes of a lichen substance usnic acid and its derivatives. Possible forms of environmental metals retained in lichens. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 91, 139150.
Wadsten, T. and Moberg, R. (1985) Calcium oxalate hydrates on the surface of lichens. The Lichenologist, 17, 239245.
Whiting, S.N., Reeves, R.D., Richards, D., Johnson, M.S., Cooke, J.A., Malaisse, F., Paton, A., Smith, J.A.C., Angle, J.S., Chaney, R.L., Ginocchio, R., Jaffre, T., Johns, R., Mclntyre, T., Purvis, O.W., Salt, D.E., Schat, H., Zhao, F.J. and Baker, A.J.M. (2004) Research priorities for conservation of metallophyte biodiversity and their potential for restoration and site remediation. Restoration Ecology, 12, 106116.
Whiting, S.N., Reeves, R.D., Richards, D., Johnson, M.S., Cooke, J.A., Malaisse, F., Paton, A., Smith, J.A.C., Angle, J.S., Chaney, R.L., Ginocchio, R., Jaffre, T., Johns, R., Mclntyre, T., Purvis, O.W., Salt, D.E., Schat, H., Zhao, F.J. and Baker, A.J.M. (2005) Use of plants to manage sites contaminated with metals. Pp. 106116 in: Plant Nutritional Genomics (Broadley, M.R. and White, P.J., editors). Blackwell Publishing, CRC, USA.
Wild, H. (1968) Geobotanical anomalies in Rhodesia. 1. The vegetation of copper-bearing rocks. Kirkia, 7, 172.
Williamson, B.J., McLean, J. and Purvis, O.W. (1998) Application of X-ray element mapping across the lichen-rock interface. Journal of Microscopy, 191, 9196.
Wilson, M.J. and Jones, D. (1984) The occurrence and significance of manganese oxalate in Pertusaria corallina (Lichenes). Pedobiologia, 26, 373379.
Wilson, M.J., Jones, D. and Russell, J.D. (1980) Glushinskite, a naturally occurring magnesium oxalate. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 837840.
Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the English Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Keywords

Mineral phases and element composition of the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora polytropa

  • O. W. Purvis (a1), B. Pawlik-Skowrońska (a2), G. Cressey (a1), G. C. Jones (a1), A. Kearsley (a1) and J. Spratt (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed