Alexander, R.R. (2001) Functional morphology and biomechanics of articulate shells. Pp. 17–145 in: Brachiopods Ancient and Modern — A Tribute to G. A. Cooper (Carlson, S.J. and White, R.D., editors). The Paleontological Society Papers, 7, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
Barthelat, F. and Espinosa, H.D. (2007) An experimental investigation of deformation and fracture of nacre-mother of pearl. Experimental Mechanics, 47, 311–324.
Brand, U., Logan, A., Hiller, N. and Richardson, J. (2003) Geochemistry of modern brachiopods: applications and implications for oceanography and paleoceanography. Chemical Geology, 198, 305–334.
Carpenter, SJ. and Lohmann, K.C. (1995) 518O and 5 C values of modern brachiopod shells. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Ada, 59, 3749–3764.
Currey, J.D. (1977) Mechanical properties of mother of pearl in tension. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 196, 443—463. Currey, J.D. (1990) Biomechanics in mineralized skeletons. Pp. 11–25 in: Skeletal Biomineralization: Patterns, Processes and Evolutionary Trends (Carter, J.G., editor). Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Currey, J.D. (1999) The design of mineralised hard tissues for their mechanical functions. Journal of Experimental Biology, 202, 3285–3294.
Currey, J.D. (2006) Bones: Structure and Mechanics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 456 pp.
Currey, J.D. and Taylor, J.D. (1974) The mechanical behaviour of some molluscan hard tissues. Journal of Zoology (London), 173, 395–406.
Gao, H.J. (2006) Application of fracture mechanics concepts to hierarchical biomechanics of bone and bone-like materials. International Journal of Fracture, 138, 101–137.
Gay, D. and Hoa, V.S. (2007) Composite Materials: Design and Applications. CRC Press (London), 548 pp.
Gotz, A., Griesshaber, E., Schmahl, W.W., Neuser, R.D., Litter, C, Hiihner, M. and Harper, E.M. (submitted) The texture and hardness distribution pattern in recent brachiopods — a comparative study of Kakanuiella chathamensis, Liothyrella uva and Liothyrella neozelanica. European Journal of Mineralogy.
Griesshaber, E., Schmahl, W.W., Neuser, R.D., Job, R., Bluem, M. and Brand, U. (2005) Microstructure of brachiopod shells — an inorganic/organic fibre composite with nanocrystalline protective layer. MRS Symposium Proceedings Series, 844, 99–104.
Griesshaber, E., Kelm, K., Icnieps, M., Schmahl, W.W., Job, R. and Mader, W. (2006) The ultrastructure of brachiopod shells — A mechanically optimized material with hierarchical architecture. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 989E, 0898-L12–01.
Griesshaber, E., Schmahl, W.W., Neuser, R., Pettke, Th., Blum, M., Mutterlose, J. and Brand, U. (2007) Crystallographic texture and microstructure of terebratulid brachiopod shell calcite: An optimized materials design with hierarchical architecture. American Mineralogist, 92, 722–734.
Grossmann, E.L., Mii, H.-S., Zhang, C. and Yancey, T. (1996) Chemical variation in Pennsylvanian brachiopod shells — diagenetic, taxonomic, microstructural and seasonal effects. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 66, 1011–1022.
Jackson, A.P., Vincent, J.F.V. and Turner, R.M. (1988) The mechanical design of nacre. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 234, 415–440.
Kamat, S., Su, X., Ballarini, R. and Heuer, A. (2000) Structural basis for the fracture toughness of the shell of the conch Strombus gigas. Nature, 405, 1036–1040.
Katti, K., Katti, D.R., Tang, J., Pradhan, S. and Sarikaya M. (2005) Modeling mechanical responses in a laminated biocomposite. Part II. Nonlinear responses and nuances of nanostructure. Journal of Materials Science, 40, 1749–1755.
Li, X.D., Chang, W.C., Chao, Y.J., Wang, R.Z. and Chang, M. (2004) Nanoscale structural and mechanical characterization of a natural nanocomposite material: the shell of red abalone. Nano Letters, 4, 613–617.
Lowenstam, H.A. (1961) Mineralogy, 18O/16O ratios, and strontium and magnesium contents of recent and fossil brachiopods and their bearing on the history of oceans. Journal of Geology, 69, 241–260.
Lowenstam, H.A. (1981) Minerals formed by Organisms. Science, 211, 1126–1131.
Mayer, G. and Sarikaya, M. (2002) Rigid biological composite materials: Structural examples for biomi-metic design. Experimental Mechanics, 42, 395–403.
Merkel, C, Griesshaber, E., Kelm, K., Neuser, R., Jordan, G., Logan, A., Mader, W. and Schmahl, W.W. (2007) Micromechanical properties and structural characterization of modern inarticulated brachiopod shells. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, G02008, doi:10.1029/2006JG000253.
Okumura, K. and de Gennes, P.G. (2001) Why is nacre strong? Elastic theory and fracture mechanics for biocomposites with stratified structures. European Physical Journal E - Soft Matter, 4, 121–127.
Oliver, W.C. and Pharr, G.M. (1992) An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments. Journal of Materials Research, 6, 1564–1583.
Parkinson, D., Curry, G.B., Cusack, M. and Fallick, A.E. (2005) Shell structure, patterns and trends of oxygen and carbon stable isotopes in modern brachiopod shells. Chemical Geology, 219, 193–235.
Perez-Huerta, A., Cusack, M., Zhu, W., England, J. and Hughes, J. (2007) Material properties of brachiopod shell ultrastructure by nanoindentation. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 4, 33–39.
Randle, V. and Engler, O. (2000) Introduction to Texture Analysis. CRC Press, Amsterdam, 408 pp.
Reindl, S., Salvenmoser, W. and Haszprunar, G. (1995) Fine-structural and immunocytochemical investigations of the Ceca of Argyrotheca-cordata and Argyrotheca-cuneata (Brachiopoda, Terebratulida, Terebratellacea). Journal of Submicroscopic Cytology and Pathology, 27, 543–556.
Rowell, A. and Grant, R. (1987) Phylum Brachiopoda. Pp. 445–497 in: Fossil Invertebrates (Bradman, R.S., Cheetham, A.H. and Rowell, A.J., editors). Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK.
Rudwick, M.J.S. (1970) Living and Fossil Brachiopods. Hutchinson and Co. LTD, London, 199 pp.
Samtleben, C, Munnecke, A. and Bickert, T. (2001) Shell succession, assemblage and species dependent effects on the C/O-isotopic composition of brachio-pods — examples from the Silurian of Gotland. Chemical Geology, 175, 61–107.
Sarikaya, M. and Aksay, LA. (Eds) (1995) Biomimetics, Design and Processing of Materials. Woodbury, NY.
Schmahl, W.W., Griesshaber, E., Neuser, R.D., Lenze, A., Job, R. and Brand, U. (2004) The microstructure of the fibrous layer of terebratulide brachiopod shell calcite. European Journal of Mineralogy, 16, 693–697.
Schmidt, N.H. and Olesen, N.O. (1989) Computer-aided determination of crystal-lattice orientation from electron channeling patterns in the SEM. The Canadian Mineralogist, 27, 15–22.
Song, F. and Bai, Y. (2002) Nanostructure of nacre and its mechanical effects. International Journal of Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulations, 3, 257–260.
Thayer, C.W. and Steele-Petrovic, H.M. (1975) Burrowing of the lingulid brachiopod Glottidia pyramidata: its ecologic and paleoecologic significance. Lethaia, 8, 209–221.
Taylor, W. (1949) Correlation of the Mohs's scale of hardness with the Vickers's hardness numbers. American Mineralogist, 28, 718–721.
Veizer, J., Ala, D. and Azmy, K. (1999)
87Sr/86Sr, 513C and 518O evolution of Phanerozoic seawater. Chemical Geology, 161, 59–88.
Weiner, S., Traub, W. and Wagner, H.D. (1999) Lamellar bone: Structure-function relations. Journal of Structural Biology, 126, 241–255.
Williams, A. (1968) Evolution of the shell structure of articulate brachiopods. Special Papers in Paleontology, 2, 1–55.
Williams, A. and Cusack, M. (1999) Evolution of a rhythmic lamination in the organophosphatic shells of brachiopods. Journal of Structural Biology, 126, 227–240.
Williams, A., Mackay, S. and Cusack, M. (1992) Structure of the organo-phosphatic shell of the brachiopod Discina. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B337, 83–104.
Williams, A., Cusack, M. and Mackay, S. (1994) Collagenous chitinophosphatic shell of the brachiopod Lingula. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B346, 223–266.
Williams, A., Cusack, M., Buckman, J. and Stachel, T. (1998a) Siliceous tablets in the larval shells of apatitic discinid brachiopods. Science, 279, 2094–2096.
Williams, A., Cusack, M. and Buckmann, J. (19986) Chemico-structural phylogeny of the discinoid brachiopod shell. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B353, 2005–2038.
Williams, A., Carlson, SJ. and Brunton, C.H.C. (2000) Brachiopod classification. Pp. 1–27 in: Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part H, Brachiopoda (revised) (A. Williams, C.H.C.
Brunton, and Carlson, SJ., editors). Vol. 2. Geological Society of America, The University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.