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Zirconosilicates in the kakortokites of the Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland: Implications for fluid evolution and high-field-strength and rare-earth element mineralization in agpaitic systems

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2018

A. M. Borst
Affiliation:
Department of Petrology and Economic Geology, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Øster Voldgade 10, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management (Geology Section), University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, 1350, Copenhagen, Denmark
H. Friis
Affiliation:
Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, P.O. 1172 Blindern, N-0318, Oslo, Norway
T. Andersen
Affiliation:
Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. 1047 Blindern, N-0316, Oslo, Norway
T. F. D. Nielsen
Affiliation:
Department of Petrology and Economic Geology, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Øster Voldgade 10, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark
T. E. Waight
Affiliation:
Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management (Geology Section), University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, 1350, Copenhagen, Denmark
M. A. Smit
Affiliation:
Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management (Geology Section), University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, 1350, Copenhagen, Denmark Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Road, Vancouver, V6 T 1Z4, Canada
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

The layered agpaitic nepheline syenites (kakortokites) of the Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland, host voluminous accumulations of eudialyte-group minerals (EGM). These complex Na-Ca-zirconosilicates contain economically attractive levels of Zr, Nb and rare-earth elements (REE), but have commonly undergone extensive autometasomatic/hydrothermal alteration to a variety of secondary mineral assemblages. Three EGM alteration assemblages are recognized, characterized by the secondary zirconosilicates catapleiite, zircon and gittinsite. Theoretical petrogenetic grid models are constructed to assess mineral stabilities in terms of component activities in the late-stage melts and fluids. Widespread alteration of EGM to catapleiite records an overall increase in water activity, and reflects interaction of EGM with late-magmatic Na-, Cl- and F-rich aqueous fluids at the final stages of kakortokite crystallization. Localized alteration of EGM and catapleiite to the rare Ca-Zr silicate gittinsite, previously unidentified at Ilímaussaq, requires an increase in CaO activity and suggests post-magmatic interaction with Ca-Sr bearing aqueous fluids. The pseudomorphic replacement of EGM in the kakortokites was not found to be associated with significant remobilization of the primary Zr, Nb and REE mineralization, regardless of the high concentrations of potential transporting ligands such as F and Cl. We infer that the immobile behaviour essentially reflects the neutral to basic character of the late-magmatic fluids, in which REE-F compounds are insoluble and remobilization of REE as Cl complexes is inhibited by precipitation of nacareniobsite-(Ce) and various Ca-REE silicates. A subsequent decrease in F– activity would furthermore restrict the mobility of Zr as hydroxyl-fluoride complexes, and promote precipitation of the secondary zirconosilicates within the confines of the replaced EGM domains.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland 2016

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Zirconosilicates in the kakortokites of the Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland: Implications for fluid evolution and high-field-strength and rare-earth element mineralization in agpaitic systems
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