Through a correlative analytical approach encompassing backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (BSE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and micro-Raman spectroscopy, the composition of the mineralized biofilm around a dental implant, retrieved due to peri-implantitis, was investigated. The mineralized biofilm contains two morphologically distinct regions: (i) bacteria-containing zones (Bact+), characterized by aggregations of unmineralized and mineralized bacteria, and intermicrobial mineralization, and (ii) bacteria-free zones (Bact−), comprised mainly of randomly oriented mineral platelets. Intramicrobial mineralization, within Bact+, appears as smooth, solid mineral deposits resembling the morphologies of dental plaque bacteria. Bact− is associated with micrometer-sized Mg-rich mineral nodules. The Ca/P ratio of Bact+ is higher than Bact−. The inorganic phase of Bact+ is carbonated apatite (CHAp), while that of Bact− is predominantly octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and whitlockite (WL) inclusions. Compared with native bone, the inorganic phase of Bact+ (i.e., CHAp) exhibits higher mineral crystallinity, lower carbonate content, and lower Ca/P, C/Ca, Mg/Ca, and Mg/P ratios. The various CaPs found within the mineralized dental biofilm (CHAp, OCP, and WL) are related to the local presence/absence of bacteria. In combination with BSE-SEM and EDX, micro-Raman spectroscopy is a valuable analytical tool for nondestructive investigation of mineralized dental biofilm composition and development.