Mauritia flexuosa palms inhabit wetland environments in the dry, seasonal Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) and produce mucilaginous secretions in the stem and petiole that have a medicinal value. The present study sought to characterize the chemical natures of those secretions and to describe the anatomical structures involved in their synthesis. Chemical analyzes of the secretions, anatomical, histochemical analyses, and electron microscopy studies were performed on the roots, stipes, petioles, and leaf blades. Stipe and petiole secretions are similar, and rich in cell wall polysaccharides and pectic compounds such as rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose, which are hydrophilic largely due to their hydroxyl and carboxylate groups. Mucilaginous secretions accumulate in the lumens of vessel elements and sclerenchyma fibers of the root, stipe, petiole, and foliar veins; their synthesis involves cell wall loosening and the activities of dictyosomes. The outer faces of the cell walls of the parenchyma tissue in the mesophyll expand to form pockets that rupture and release pectocellulose substances into the intercellular spaces. The presence of mucilage in the xylem, extending from the roots to the leaf veins and continuous with the leaf apoplast, and sub-stomatal chambers suggest a strategy for plant water economy.