Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Structural Impacts on Thallus and Algal Cell Components of Two Lichen Species in Response to Low-Level Air Pollution in Pacific Northwest Forests

  • Hyung-Shim Y. Ra (a1), Laura Rubin (a1) and Richard F.E. Crang (a1)

Abstract

Lichens have long been regarded as bioindicators of air pollution, and structural studies typically have indicated negative impacts in highly polluted areas. In this research, Parmelia sulcata and Platismatia glauca were collected from one clean and two polluted sites in the Pacific Northwest forests of the United States to investigate the anatomical and ultrastructural responses of relatively resistant lichens to moderate air pollution. Light microscopy of polluted materials revealed only slight increases in the algal cell proportions of the thallus, and a decrease in the fungal cells of the medulla. Using transmission electron microscopy, increased lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and an increase in the cell wall thickness of the photobionts were found in the polluted lichens. These results were compared with physiological data in which the net carbon uptake did not show any significant differences; however, the total chlorophyll content was heightened in the polluted samples. The increased total chlorophyll content and the absence of any changes in the algal cell proportions of the polluted samples suggest that the photobionts possessed a higher chlorophyll content per unit volume of the photobiont at polluted sites. The results also indicate that lichens have altered their storage allocation in different cellular compartments. This may be a result of symbiotic readjustment(s) between the photobiont and the mycobiont. In comparison with the physiological results from these two species, these changes do not represent damaging effects by low-level air pollution.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author. E-mail: r-crang@uiuc.edu

References

Hide All

REFERENCES

Ahmadjian, V. (1993a). The photobiont (photosynthetic symbiont). In The Lichen Symbiosis, Ahmadjian, V. (Ed.), pp. 3052. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Ahmadjian, V. (1993b). Biont interactions: Lichen, bionts and air pollution. In The Lichen Symbiosis, Ahmadjian, V. (Ed.), pp. 115156. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Ascaso, C. (1978). Ultrastructural modifications in lichens induced by environmental humidity. Lichenologist 10, 209219.
Ascaso, C., Valladares, F., & De Los Rios, A. (1995). New ultrastructural aspects of pyrenoids of the lichen photobiont Trebouxia (Microthamniales, Chlorophyta). J Phycol 31, 114119.
Balaguer, L., Manrique, E., & Ascaso, C. (1997). Predictability of the combined effects of sulfur dioxide and nitrate on the green-algal lichen Ramalina farinacea. Can J Bot 75, 18361842.
Balaguer, L., Valladares, F., Ascaso, C., Barnes, J.D., De Los Rios, A., Manrique, E., & Smith, E.C. (1996). Potential effects of rising tropospheric concentrations of CO2 and O3 on green-algal lichens. New Phytol 132, 641652.
Crang, R.F.E. (2000). Monitoring air pollution deposition in the Arctic with a lichen by means of microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis: A case study. In Environmental Pollution and Plant Responses, Agrawal, S.B. & Agrawal, M. (Eds.), pp. 355365. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press LLC.
Crang, R.F.E. & McQuattie, C.J. (1987). A quantitative light microscopic technique to assess the impact of air pollutants on foliar structure. Trans Am Micros Soc 106, 164172.
De Sloover, J. & LeBlanc, F. (1970). Pollutions atmospheriques et fertilite chez les mousses et les lichens epiphytiques. Bull Acad Soc Lorraines Sci 9, 8290.
Eversman, S. & Sigal, L.L. (1984). Ultrastructural effects of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on two lichen species. The Bryologist 87, 112116.
Eversman, S. & Sigal, L.L. (1987). Effects of SO2, O3, and SO2 and O3 in combination on photosynthesis and ultrastructure of two lichen species. Can J Bot 65, 18061818.
Geiser, L. & Neitlich, P. (in press). Air quality and climate gradients in western Oregon and Washington indicated by lichen communities and chemical analysis of lichen tissue. Ecological indicators.
Gries, C. (1996). Lichens as indicators of air pollution. In Lichen Biology, Nash, T.H. (Ed.), pp. 240254. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Hildreth, K.C. & Ahmadjian, V. (1981). A study of Trebouxia and Pseudotrebouxia isolates from different lichens. Lichenologist 13, 6586.
Holopainen, T.H. (1982). Summer versus winter condition of the ultrastructure of the epiphytic lichens Bryoria capillaris and Hypogymnia physodes in central Finland. Ann Bot Fenn 19, 3952.
Holopainen, T.H. (1983). Ultrastructural changes in epiphytic lichens, Bryoria capillaris and Hypogymnia physodes, growing near a fertilizer plant and a pulp mill in central Finland. Ann Bot Fenn 20, 169185.
Holopainen, T.H. (1984). Cellular injuries in epiphytic lichens transplanted to air polluted areas. Nord J Bot 4, 393408.
Holopainen, T. & Karenlampi, L. (1984). Injuries to lichen ultrastructure caused by sulfur dioxide fumigations. New Phytol 98, 285294.
Holopainen, T. & Kauppi, M. (1989). A comparison of light, fluorescence and electron microscopic observations in assessing the SO2 injury of lichens under different moisture conditions. Lichenologist 21, 119134.
Kauppi, M. (1980). The influence of nitrogen-rich pollution components on lichens. Acta Univ Oulu 101 Biol 9, 125.
Kauppi, M. & Halonen, P. (1992). Lichens as indicators of air pollution in Oulu, northern Finland. Ann Bot Fenn 29, 19.
Kiss, T. (1988). Dispersal and growth-forms: An approach towards an understanding of the life-strategy concept in lichenology. Acta Botanica Hungarica 34, 175191.
Kytoviita, M.M. & Crittenden, P.D. (1994). Effects of simulated acid rain on nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) in the lichen Stereocaulon paschale (L.) Hoffm., with special reference to nutritional aspects. New Phytol 128, 263271.
Larson, D.W. & Kershaw, K.A. (1975). Measurement of CO2 exchange in lichens: A new method. Can J Bot 53, 15351541.
McCune, B. & Geiser, L. (1997). Macrolichens of the Pacific Northwest. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press.
Michael, R., McKay, L., & Gibbs, S.P. (1991). Composition and function of pyrenoids: Cytochemical and immunocytochemical approaches. Can J Bot 69, 10401052.
Peveling, E. (1973). Fine structure. In The Lichens, Ahmadjian, V. & Hale, M.E. (Eds.), pp. 147182. New York: Academic Press.
Piervittori, R., Usai, L., Alessio, F., & Maffei, M. (1997). The effect of simulated acid rain on surface morphology and n-alkane composition of Pseudevernia furfuracea. Lichenologist 29, 191198.
Reynolds, E.S. (1963). The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron-opaque stain in electron microscopy. J Cell Biol 17, 208212.
Richardson, D.H.S. (1992). Sulfur dioxide and acid rain. In Pollution Monitoring with Lichens, Richardson, D.H.S. (Ed.), pp. 615. Slough, England: The Richmond Publishing Co.
Ronen, R. & Galun, M. (1984). Pigment extraction from lichens with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and estimation of chlorophyll degradation. Env Exp Bot 24, 239245.
Rosentreter, R. & Ahmadjian, V. (1977). Effect of ozone on the lichen Cladonia arbuscula and the Trebouxia phycobiont of Cladina stellaris. The Bryologist 80, 600605.
Roy-Arcand, L., Delisle, C.E., & Briere, F.G. (1989). Effects of simulated acid precipitation on the metabolic activity of Cladina stellaris. Can J Bot 67, 17961802.
Scott, M.G., Hutchinson, T.C., & Feth, M.J. (1989). A comparison of the effects of Canadian boreal forest lichens of nitric and sulfuric acids as sources of rain acidity. New Phytol 111, 663671.
Smith, E.C. & Griffiths, H. (1996). The occurrence of the chloroplast pyrenoid is correlated with the activity of a CO2-concentrating mechanism and carbon isotope discrimination in lichens and bryophytes. Planta 198, 116.
Spurr, A.R. (1969). A low-viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy. J Ultrastruct Res 26, 3143.
Tarhanen, S. (1998). Ultrastructural responses of the lichen Bryoria fuscescens to simulated acid rain and heavy metal deposition. Ann Bot 82, 735746.
Tarhanen, S., Poikolainen, J., Holopainen, T., & Oksanen, J. (2000). Severe photobiont injuries of lichens are strongly associated with air pollution. New Phytol 147, 579590.
Wellburn, A.R. (1994). The spectral determination of chlorophylls a and b, as well as total carotenoids, using various solvents with spectrophotometers of different resolution. J Plant Physiol 144, 307313.

Keywords

Structural Impacts on Thallus and Algal Cell Components of Two Lichen Species in Response to Low-Level Air Pollution in Pacific Northwest Forests

  • Hyung-Shim Y. Ra (a1), Laura Rubin (a1) and Richard F.E. Crang (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed