Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Morphology Observation of Latex Particles with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy by a Hydroxyethyl Cellulose Embedding Combined with RuO4 Staining Method

  • Xiang Geng (a1), Myra Xuemei Zhai (a1), Tong Sun (a1) and Greg Meyers (a2)

Abstract

Imaging of latex particles, especially those with low glass transition temperature (Tg) has been a challenging issue. Different sample preparation methods for characterization of the morphology of a poly(n-butyl acrylate)/polystyrene two-phase latex are discussed and compared in this study. A method via hydroxyethyl cellulose embedding combined with ruthenium tetraoxide (RuO4) staining for scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) observation is developed. By using this method, the spherical shape of latex particles can be maintained without deformation. The degree of incorporation of RuO4 into latex particles and cellulose matrix is different, which makes latex particles readily identifiable from cellulose matrix under STEM. A series of latexes with different structures such as copolymer latex and organic-inorganic hybrid latex were also successfully investigated by this method. The results indicate this specimen preparation method can be applied to study the morphology of a wide range of latex systems.

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author. E-mail: XGeng@dow.com

References

Hide All
Barkay, Z., Rivkin, I. & Margalit, R. (2009). Three-dimensional characterization of drug-encapsulating particles using STEM detector in FEG-SEM. Micron 40, 480485.
Blackson, J., Garcia-Meitin, E.I. & Darus, M.E. (2007). High resolution scanning electron microscopy examination of polymer morphology. Microsc Microanal 13, 10621063.
Bogner, A., Jouneau, P.H., Thollet, G., Basset, D. & Gauthier, C. (2007). A history of scanning electron microscopy developments: Towards “wet-STEM” imaging. Micron 38, 390401.
Crassous, J.J. & Ballauff, M. (2006). Imaging the volume transition in thermosensitive core-shell particles by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. Langmuir 22, 24032406.
Disanayaka, B., Zhao, C.L., Winnik, M.A., Shivers, R. & Croucher, M.D. (1990). Polymer colloid morphology studied by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Langmuir 6, 162168.
Echlin, P. (2009). Handbook of Sample Preparation for Scanning Electron Microscope and X-Ray Microanalysis. New York: Springer.
Erdem, B., Sudol, E.D., Dimonie, V.L. & El-Aasser, M.S.J. (2000). Encapsulation of inorganic particles via miniemulsion polymerization. I. Dispersion of titanium dioxide particles in organic media using OLOA 370 as stabilizer. J Polym Sci A 38, 44194430.
Gaillard, C., Fuchs, G., Plummer, C.J.G. & Stadelmann, P.A. (2007). The morphology of submicronsized core–shell latex particles: An electron microscopy study. Micron 38, 522535.
Garcia-Meitin, E.I., Bar, G., Blackson, J. & Reuschle, D. (2008). High resolution polymer imaging using scanning transmission electron microscopy. Microsc Microanal 14(Suppl 2), 13801381.
Guise, O., Strom, C. & Preschilla, N. (2011). STEM-in-SEM method for morphology analysis of polymer systems. Polymer 52, 12781285.
Harris, J.R. & Horne, R.W. (1994). Negative staining: A brief assessment of current technical benefits, limitations and future possibilities. Micron 25, 513.
Harris, J.R., Roos, C., Djalali, R., Rheingans, O., Maskos, M. & Schmidt, M. (1999). Application of the negative staining technique to both aqueous and organic solvent solutions of polymer particles. Micron 30, 289298.
Kirsch, S., Landfester, K., Shaffer, O. & El-Aasser, M.S. (1999). Particle morphology of carboxylated poly-(n-butyl acrylate)/poly(methyl methacrylate) composite latex particles investigated by TEM and NMR. Acta Polym 50, 347362.
Lee, D.I. (2006). Nanostructured latexes made by a sequential multistage emulsion polymerization. J Polym Sci A 44, 28262836.
Luna-Xavier, J.L., Guyot, A. & Bourgeat-Lami, E. (2002). Synthesis and characterization of silica/poly (methyl methacrylate) nanocomposite latex particles through emulsion polymerization using a cationic azo initiator. J Colloid Interface Sci 25, 8292.
Luo, H., Scriven, L.E. & Francis, L.F. (2007). Cryo-SEM studies of latex/ceramic nanoparticle coating microstructure development. J Colloid Interface Sci 316, 500509.
Maraloiu, V.A., Hamoudeh, M., Fessi, H. & Blanchin, M.G. (2010). Study of magnetic nanovectors by Wet-STEM, a new ESEM mode in transmission. J Colloid Interface Sci 352, 386392.
Pei, M., Wu, Y., Kim, W., Hyung, W. & Soh, Y. (2004). Effect of the monomer ratio on the properties of poly(methyl methacrylate butyl acrylate) latex-modified mortars. J Appl Polym Sci 93, 24032409.
Segall, I., Dimonie, V.L., El-Aasser, M.S., Soskey, P.R. & Mylonakis, S.G. (1995). Core-shell structured latex particles. II. Synthesis and characterization of poly(n-butyl acrylate)/Poly(benzyl methacrylatestyrene) structured latex particles. J Appl Polym Sci 58, 401417.
Sherman, R.L. & Ford, W.T. (2005). Semiconductor nanoparticle/polystyrene latex composite materials. Langmuir 21, 52185222.

Keywords

Morphology Observation of Latex Particles with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy by a Hydroxyethyl Cellulose Embedding Combined with RuO4 Staining Method

  • Xiang Geng (a1), Myra Xuemei Zhai (a1), Tong Sun (a1) and Greg Meyers (a2)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed