Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Microstructural Evolution in 2101 Lean Duplex Stainless Steel During Low- and Intermediate-Temperature Aging

  • Jean-Yves Maetz (a1), Sophie Cazottes (a1), Catherine Verdu (a1), Frédéric Danoix (a2) and Xavier Kléber (a1)...

Abstract

The microstructural evolution of a 2101 lean duplex stainless steel (DSS) during isothermal aging from room temperature to 470 °C was investigated using thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements to follow the kinetics, atom probe tomography, and transmission electron microscopy. Despite the low Ni, Cr, and Mo contents, the lean DSS was sensitive to αα′ phase separation and Ni–Mn–Si–Al–Cu clustering at intermediate temperatures. The time–temperature pairs characteristic of the early stages of ferrite decomposition were determined from the TEP kinetics. Considering their composition and locations, the clusters are most likely G phase precursors.

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author. jean-yves.maetz@ubc.ca

References

Hide All
Alfonsson, E. (2010). Lean duplex—The first decade of service experience. In Duplex Stainless Steel—DSS 2010 Conference Proceedings, Charles, J. (Ed.), pp. 787793. Beaune: Stainless Steel World.
Auger, P., Danoix, F., Grisot, O., Massoud, J.P. & Van Duysen, J.C. (1995). Spinodal decomposition in duplex stainless steels, investigated by atom probe, neutrons scattering and thermoelectric measurements. Ann Phys C3–20, 143.
Auger, P., Danoix, F., Menand, A., Bonnet, S., Bourgoin, J. & Guttmann, M. (1990). Atom probe and transmission electron microscopy study of aging of cast duplex stainless steels. Mater Sci Technol 6, 301313.
Benkirat, D., Merle, P. & Borrelly, R. (1988). Effects of precipitation on the thermoelectric-power of iron carbon alloys. Acta Metall 36, 613620.
Blatt, F.J., Schroeder, P.A., Foiles, C.L. & Greig, D. (1976). Thermoelectric Power of Metals . New York: Plenum Press.
Borrelly, R. & Benkirat, D. (1985). Sensitivity of thermoelectric power to the microstructural state of iron and iron-nitrogen. Acta Metall 33, 855866.
Brenner, S.S., Miller, M.K. & Soffa, W.A. (1982). Spinodal decomposition of iron-32 at% chromium at 470°C. Scr Metall 16, 831836.
Brown, J.E. & Smith, G.D.W. (1991). Atom probe studies of spinodal processes in duplex stainless steels and single- and dual-phase Fe–Cr–Ni alloys. Surf Sci 246, 285291.
Chandra, D. & Schwartz, L.H. (1971). Mössbauer effect study of the 475°C decomposition of Fe–Cr. Metall Trans 2, 511519.
Charles, J. & Chemelle, P. (2010). The history of duplex developments, nowadays DSS properties and duplex market future trends. In Duplex Stainless Steel—DSS 2010 Conference Proceedings, Charles, J. (Ed.), pp. 2979. Beaune: Stainless Steel World.
Danoix, F. & Auger, P. (2000). Atom probe studies of the Fe–Cr system and stainless steels aged at intermediate temperature: A review. Mater Charact 44, 177201.
Danoix, F., Auger, P. & Blavette, D. (1992). An atom-probe investigation of some correlated phase transformations in Cr, Ni, Mo containing supersaturated ferrites. Surf Sci 266, 364369.
Danoix, F., Auger, P. & Blavette, D. (2004). Hardening of aged duplex stainless steels by spinodal decomposition. Microsc Microanal 10, 349354.
Danoix, F., Auger, P., Chambreland, S. & Blavette, D. (1994). A 3D study of G-phase precipitation in spinodally decomposed α-ferrite by tomographic atom probe analysis. Microsc Microanal Microstruct 5, 121132.
Gault, B., Moody, M.P., Cairney, J.M. & Ringer, S.P. (2012). Atom Probe Microscopy. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
Hamaoka, T., Nomoto, A., Nishida, K., Dohi, K. & Soneda, N. (2012 a). Accurate determination of the number density of G-phase precipitates in thermally aged duplex stainless steel. Philos Mag 92, 27162732.
Hamaoka, T., Nomoto, A., Nishida, K., Dohi, K. & Soneda, N. (2012 b). Effects of aging temperature on G-phase precipitation and ferrite-phase decomposition in duplex stainless steel. Philos Mag 92, 43544375.
Hédin, M., Massoud, J.P. & Danoix, F. (1996). Influence of the quenching rate on the spinodal decomposition in a duplex stainless steel. J Phys IV 6, C5-235C5-240.
Hedström, P., Huyan, F., Zhou, J., Wessman, S., Thuvander, M. & Odqvist, J. (2013). The 475°C embrittlement in Fe–20Cr and Fe–20Cr–X (X=Ni, Cu, Mn) alloys studied by mechanical testing and atom probe tomography. Mater Sci Eng A 574, 123129.
Johansson, P. & Liljas, M. (2002). A new lean duplex stainless steel for construction purposes. 4th European Stainless Steel Science and Market Congress, Proceedings, Paris, France, 2002.
Kleber, X., Simonet, L. & Fouquet, F. (2006). A computational study of the thermoelectric power of 2D two phase materials. Model Simul Mater Sci Eng 14, 2131.
Lamontagne, A., Kleber, X., Massardier-Jourdan, V. & Mari, D. (2014). Identification of the mechanisms responsible for static strain ageing in heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires. Philos Mag Lett 94, 495502.
Langer, J.S., Bar-on, M. & Miller, H.D. (1975). New computational method in the theory of spinodal decomposition. Phys Rev A 11, 14171429.
Lasseigne, A.N., Olson, D.L., Kleebe, H.-J. & Boellinghaus, T. (2005). Microstructural assessment of nitrogen-strengthened austenitic stainless steel welds using thermoelectric power. Metall Mater Trans A 36, 30313039.
Lavaire, N., Merlin, J. & Sardoy, V. (2001). Study of ageing in strained ultra and extra low carbon steels by thermoelectric power measurement. Scr Mater 44, 553559.
Lemoine, C., Fnidiki, A., Teillet, J., Hédin, M. & Danoix, F. (1998). Mössbauer study of the ferrite decomposition in unaged duplex stainless steels. Scr Mater 39, 6166.
Maetz, J.-Y., Cazottes, S., Verdu, C. & Kleber, X. (2015). Precipitation and phase transformations in 2101 lean duplex stainless steel during isothermal aging. Metall Mater Trans A 47A, 239253.
Mateo, A., Llanes, L., Anglada, M., Redjaïmia, A. & Metauer, G. (1997). Characterization of the intermetallic G-phase in an AISI 329 duplex stainless steel. J Mater Sci 32, 45334540.
Mehrer, H. (Ed.) (1990). Diffusion in Solids Metals and Alloys, Landolt-Börnstein, Group III: Vol. 26. Springer Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.
Meyer, N., Mantel, M., Gauthier, A. & Bourgin, C. (2011). Long term aging of various duplex stainless steels between 250°C and 400°C—Relationship between toughness measurements and metallurgical parameters. Revue de Métallurgie 108, 213223.
Mithieux, J.D. & Fourmentin, R. (2010). 475°C embrittlement in duplex: A review. In Duplex Stainless Steel—DSS 2010 Conference Proceedings, Charles, J. (Ed.), Beaune: Stainless Steel World.
Nilsson, J.-O. (1992). Super duplex stainless steels. Mater Sci Technol 8, 685700.
Pareige, C., Novy, S., Saillet, S. & Pareige, P. (2011). Study of phase transformation and mechanical properties evolution of duplex stainless steels after long term thermal ageing (>20 years). J Nucl Mater 411, 9096.
Perez, M., Sidoroff, C., Vincent, A. & Esnouf, C. (2009). Microstructural evolution of martensitic 100Cr6 bearing steel during tempering: From thermoelectric power measurements to the prediction of dimensional changes. Acta Mater 57, 31703181.
Stiller, K., Hättestrand, M. & Danoix, F. (1998). Precipitation in 9Ni–12Cr–2Cu maraging steels. Acta Mater 46, 60636073.
Takeuchi, T., Kameda, J., Nagai, Y., Toyama, T., Nishiyama, Y. & Onizawa, K. (2011). Study on microstructural changes in thermally-aged stainless steel weld-overlay cladding of nuclear reactor pressure vessels by atom probe tomography. J Nucl Mater 415, 198204.
Thuvander, M., Zhou, J., Odqvist, J., Hertzman, S. & Hedström, P. (2012). Observations of copper clustering in a 25Cr–7Ni super duplex stainless steel during low-temperature aging under load. Philos Mag Lett 92, 336343.
Weng, K.L., Chen, H.R. & Yang, J.R. (2004). The low-temperature aging embrittlement in a 2205 duplex stainless steel. Mater Sci Eng A 379, 119132.
Williams, R.O. & Praxton, H.W. (1957). The nature of aging of binary chromium alloys around 500°C. J Iron Steel Inst 185, 358374.
Zhou, J., Odqvist, J., Höglund, L., Thuvander, M., Barkar, T. & Hedström, P. (2014). Initial clustering—A key factor for phase separation kinetics in Fe–Cr-based alloys. Scr Mater 75, 6265.
Zhou, J., Odqvist, J., Thuvander, M., Hertzman, S. & Hedström, P. (2012). Concurrent phase separation and clustering in the ferrite phase during low temperature stress aging of duplex stainless steel weldments. Acta Mater 60, 58185827.

Keywords

Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Maetz supplementary material
Figure S1

 Unknown (3.9 MB)
3.9 MB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Maetz supplementary material
Figure S2

 Unknown (466 KB)
466 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Maetz supplementary material
Figure S3

 Unknown (518 KB)
518 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed