Skip to main content Accessibility help

Karyotype Analysis of Buckwheat Using Atomic Force Microscopy

  • Suresh Neethirajan (a1), Tamaki Hirose (a2), Junichi Wakayama (a2), Kazumi Tsukamoto (a2), Hiroko Kanahara (a2) and Shigeru Sugiyama (a2)...


Karyotype analysis and classification of buckwheat chromosomes were performed without chemical banding or staining using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Fagopyrum esculentum (common buckwheat) and Fagopyrum tartaricum (Tartarian buckwheat) chromosomes were isolated from root tissues using an enzymatic maceration technique and spread over a glass substrate. Air-dried chromosomes had a surface with ridges, and the height of common and tartary buckwheat were approximately 350 and 150 nm. Volumes of metaphase sets of buckwheat chromosomes were calculated using three-dimensional AFM measurements. Chromosomes were morphologically characterized by the size, volume, arm lengths, and ratios. The calculated volumes of the F. esculentum and F. tartaricum chromosomes were in the ranges of 1.08–2.09 μm3 and 0.49–0.78 μm3, respectively. The parameters such as the relative arm length, centromere position, and the chromosome volumes measured using AFM provide accurate karyomorphological classification by avoiding the subjective inconsistencies in banding patterns of conventional methods. The karyotype evolutionary trend indicates that F. esculentum is an ancient species compared to F. tartaricum. This is the first report of a cytological karyotype of buckwheat using AFM.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author. E-mail:
Corresponding author. E-mail:


Hide All
Bennett, M.D., Smith, J.B., Ward, J.P. & Finch, R.A. (1982). The relationship between chromosome volume and DNA content in unsquashed metaphase cells of barley. J Cell Sci 56, 101111.
Di Bucchianico, S., Venora, G., Lucretti, S., Limongi, T., Palladino, L. & Poma, A. (2008). Saponaria officinalis karyology and karyotype by means of image analyzer and atomic force microscopy. Microsc Res Techniq 71, 730736.
Hadlaczky, G., Bisztray, G., Praznovszky, T. & Dudits, D. (1983). Mass isolation of plant chromosomes and nuclei. Planta 157, 278285.
Hoshi, O. & Ushiki, T. (2001). Three-dimensional structure of G-banded human metaphase chromosomes observed by atomic force microscopy. Arch Histol Cytol 64, 475482.
ISO (2000). Geometrical product specifications (GPS)—Surface texture: Profile method; Measurement standards—Part 1: Material measures. In ISO 5436-1:2000, p. 14. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standards.
Levan, A., Fredga, K. & Sandberg, A. (1964). Nomenclature for centromeric position on chromosomes. Hereditas 52, 201219.
McMaster, T., Winfield, M., Karp, A. & Miles, M. (1996). Analysis of cereal chromosomes by atomic force microscopy. Genome 39, 439444.
Morris, M. (1951). Cytogenetic studies on buckwheat—Genetic and cytological studies of compatibility in relation to heterostyly in common buckwheat, Fagopyrum-Sagittatum. J Hered 42, 8589.
Muller, D. & Dufrêne, Y. (2008). Atomic force microscopy as a multifunctional molecular toolbox in nanobiotechnology. Nat Nanotech 3, 261269.
Nagano, M., Aii, J., Campbell, C., Kawasaki, S. & Adachi, T. (2000). Genome size analysis of the genus Fagopyrum. Fagopyrum 17, 3539.
Paszko, B. (2006). A critical review and a new proposal of karyotype asymmetry indices. Plant Syst Evol 258, 3948.
Pomeranz, Y., Marshall, H., Robbins, G. & Gilbertsons, J. (1975). Protein-content and amino-acid composition of maturing buckwheat (Fagopyrum Esculentum Moench). J Cer Chem 46, 479485.
Schaper, A., Rossle, M., Formanek, H., Jovin, T. & Wanner, G. (2000). Complementary visualization of mitotic barley chromatin by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and scanning force microscopy. J Struct Biol 129, 1729.
Stebbins, G.L. (1971). Chromosomal Evolution in Higher Plants. London, UK: Addison-Wesley Publishers.
Sugiyama, S., Yoshino, T., Kanahara, H., Kobori, T. & Ohtani, T. (2003). Atomic force microscopic imaging of 30 nm chromatin fiber from partially relaxed plant chromosomes. Scanning 25, 132136.
Yang, X., Wu, Z., Chen, H., Shao, J. & Wu, Q. (2010). Karyotype and genetic relationship based on RAPD markers of six wild buckwheat species (Fagopyrum spp.) from southwest of China. Genet Resour Crop Ev 57, 649665.
Yoshino, T., Sugiyama, S., Hagiwara, S., Ushiki, T. & Ohtani, T. (2002). Simultaneous collection of topographic and fluorescent images of barley chromosomes by scanning near-field optical/atomic force microscopy. J Electron Microsc 51, 199203.


Karyotype Analysis of Buckwheat Using Atomic Force Microscopy

  • Suresh Neethirajan (a1), Tamaki Hirose (a2), Junichi Wakayama (a2), Kazumi Tsukamoto (a2), Hiroko Kanahara (a2) and Shigeru Sugiyama (a2)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed