Skip to main content Accessibility help

Determination of Mean Inner Potential and Inelastic Mean Free Path of ZnTe Using Off-Axis Electron Holography and Dynamical Effects Affecting Phase Determination

  • Zhaofeng Gan (a1), Michael DiNezza (a2), Yong-Hang Zhang (a2), David J. Smith (a1) and Martha R. McCartney (a1)...


The mean inner potential (MIP) and inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of undoped ZnTe are determined using a combination of off-axis electron holography and convergent beam electron diffraction. The ZnTe MIP is measured to be 13.7±0.6 V, agreeing with previously reported simulations, and the IMFP at 200 keV is determined to be 46±2 nm for a collection angle of 0.75 mrad. Dynamical effects affecting holographic phase imaging as a function of incident beam direction for several common semiconductors are systematically studied and compared using Bloch wave simulations. These simulation results emphasize the need for careful choice of specimen orientation when carrying out quantitative electron holography studies in order to avoid erroneous phase measurements.


Corresponding author

* Corresponding author.


Hide All
Callister, W.D., Larsen, T.L., Varotto, C.F. & Stevenson, D.A. (1972). The high temperature electrical properties of ZnTe: Al; self-compensation model in ZnTe. J Phys Chem Solids 33, 14331442.
Den Hertog, M.I., Schmid, H., Cooper, D., Rouviere, J.L., Bjork, M.T., Riel, H., Rivallin, P., Karg, S. & Riess, W. (2009). Mapping active dopants in single silicon nanowires using off-axis electron holography. Nano Lett 9, 38373843.
DiNezza, M.J., Zhang, Q., Ding, D., Fan, J., Liu, X., Furdyna, J.K. & Zhang, Y.-H. (2012). Aluminum diffusion in ZnTe films grown on GaSb substrates for n-type doping. Phys Status Solidi C 9, 17201723.
Gajdardziska-Josifovska, M. & Carim, A.H. (1999). Introduction to Electron Holography. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Gajdardziska-Josifovska, M., McCartney, M.R., de Ruijter, W.J., Smith, D.J., Weiss, J.K. & Zuo, J.M. (1993). Accurate measurements of mean inner potential of crystal wedges using digital electron holograms. Ultramicroscopy 50, 285299.
Hiroshi, O., Gheyas Syed, I., Hitoshi, N., Mitsuhiro, N. & Akira, Y. (1994). Growth of low-resistivity n-type ZnTe by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Jpn J Appl Phys 33, L980.
Lichte, H., Börrnert, F., Lenk, A., Lubk, A., Röder, F., Sickmann, J., Sturm, S., Vogel, K. & Wolf, D. (2013). Electron holography for fields in solids: Problems and progress. Ultramicroscopy 134, 126134.
Lubk, A., Wolf, D. & Lichte, H. (2010). The effect of dynamical scattering in off-axis holographic mean inner potential and inelastic mean free path measurements. Ultramicroscopy 110, 438446.
Mandel, G. (1964). Self-compensation limited conductivity in binary semiconductors. I. Theory. Phys Rev 134, A1073A1079.
McCartney, M.R., Agarwal, N., Chung, S., Cullen, D.A., Han, M.-G., He, K., Li, L., Wang, H., Zhou, L. & Smith, D.J. (2010). Quantitative phase imaging of nanoscale electrostatic and magnetic fields using off-axis electron holography. Ultramicroscopy 110, 375382.
McCartney, M.R. & Gajdardziska-Josifovska, M. (1994). Absolute measurement of normalized thickness, t/λi, from off-axis electron holography. Ultramicroscopy 53, 283289.
McCartney, M.R. & Smith, D.J. (2007). Electron holography: Phase imaging with nanometer resolution. Annu Rev Mater Res 37, 729767.
Ross, F.M. & Stobbs, W.M. (1991). Computer modelling for Fresnel contrast analysis. Philos Mag A 63, 3770.
Sato, K., Hanafusa, M., Noda, A., Arakawa, A., Uchida, M., Asahi, T. & Oda, O. (2000). ZnTe pure green light-emitting diodes fabricated by thermal diffusion. J Crystal Growth 214–215, 10801084.
Schowalter, M., Lamoen, D., Rosenauer, A., Kruse, P. & Gerthsen, D. (2004). First-principles calculations of the mean inner Coulomb potential for sphalerite type II–VI semiconductors. Appl Phys Lett 85, 4938.
Spence, J.C.H. & Zuo, J.M. (1992). Electron Microdiffraction. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Stadelmann, P.A. (1987). EMS—a software package for electron diffraction analysis and HREM image simulation in materials science. Ultramicroscopy 21, 131145.
Tanaka, T., Guo, Q., Nishio, M. & Ogawa, H. (2007). Characterization of Al-doped ZnTe layer using scanning capacitance microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy. J Phys Conf Ser 61, 11621166.
Tanaka, T., Hayashida, K., Saito, K., Nishio, M., Guo, Q. & Ogawa, H. (2006). Effect of surface treatment on properties of ZnTe LED fabricated by Al thermal diffusion. Phys Status Solidi B 243, 959962.
Tao, I.W., Jurkovic, M. & Wang, W.I. (1994). Doping of ZnTe by molecular beam epitaxy. Appl Phys Lett 64, 18481849.
Teiji, T., Toyosaka, M. & Kiyoshi, T. (1972). ZnTe-InAs heterojunctions prepared by liquid-phase epitaxy. Jpn J Appl Phys 11, 1024.
Yazdi, S., Kasama, T., Beleggia, M., Samaie-Yekta, M., Mccomb, D.W., Twitchett-Harrison, A.C. & Dunin-Borkowski, R.E. (2015). Towards quantitative electrostatic potential mapping of working semiconductor devices using off-axis electron holography. Ultramicroscopy 152, 1020.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed