Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Characterization of Healthy and Fluorotic Enamel by Atomic Force Microscopy

  • Verónica Zavala-Alonso (a1), Gabriel A. Martínez-Castanon (a1), Nuria Patiño-Marín (a1), Humberto Terrones (a2), Kenneth Anusavice (a3) and Juan P. Loyola-Rodríguez (a1)...

Abstract

The aim was to characterize the external structure, roughness, and absolute depth profile (ADP) of fluorotic enamel compared with healthy enamel. Eighty extracted human molars were classified into four groups [TFI: 0, control (C); 1–3, mild (MI); 4–5, moderate (MO); 6–9, severe fluorosis (S)] according to the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI). All samples were analyzed by atomic force microscopy.

The mean values of enamel surface roughness (ESR) in nm were: Group C, 92.6; Group MI, 188.8; Group MO, 246.9; and Group S, 532.2. The mean values of absolute depth profile in nm were: C, 1,065.7; MI, 2,360.7; MO, 2,536.7; and S, 6,146.2. The differences between mean ESR and mean ADP among groups were statistically significant (p < 0.05). This structural study confirms at the nanometer level that there is a positive association between fluorosis severity, ESR, and ADP, and there is an association with the clinical findings of fluorosis measured by TFI as well.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author. E-mail: jloyola@uaslp.mx

References

Hide All
Abanto-Alvarez, J., Rezende, K., Salazar-Marocho, S., Alves, F., Celiberti, P. & Ciamponi, A. (2009). Dental fluorosis: Exposure, prevention and management. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 1, 103107.
Angmar-Månsson, B., Jong, E., Sundstrom, F. & Bosch, J. (1994). Strategies for improving the assessment of dental fluorosis: Focus on optical techniques. Adv Dent Res 8, 7579.
Batina, N., Renugopalakrishnan, V., Casillas Lavin, P.N., Guerrero, J.CH., Morales, M., Garduño-Juarez, R. & Lakka, S.L. (2004). Ultrastructure of dental enamel afflicted with hypoplasia: An atomic force miscroscopic study. Calcif Tissue Int 74, 294301.
Brès, E.F. & Hutchison, J.L. (2002). Surface structure study of biological calcium phosphate apatite crystals from human tooth enamel. J Biomed Mater Res 63, 433440.
Burt, B.A. (1992). The changing patterns of systemic fluoride intake. J Dent Res 71, 12281237.
Clark, D.C. (1994). Trends in prevalence of dental fluorosis in North America. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 22, 148152.
Everett, E.T., McHenry, M.A., Reynolds, N., Eggertsson, H., Sullivan, J., Kantmann, C., Martinez-Mier, E.A., Warrick, J.M. & Stookey, G.M. (2002). Dental fluorosis: Variability among different inbred mouse strains. J Dent Res 81, 794798.
Fejerskov, O., Larsen, M.J., Richards, A. & Baelum, V. (1994). Dental tissue effects of fluoride. Adv Dent Res 8, 1531.
Fejerskov, O., Manji, F., Baelum, V. & Moller, I.J. (1988). Dental fluorosis: A Handbook for Health Workers. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
Garcia, A.I. (1989). Caries incidence and costs of prevention programs. J Public Health Dent 49, 259271.
Grimaldo, M., Borja-Aburto, V., Ramírez, A., Ponce, M., Rosas, M. & Díaz-Barriga, F. (1995). Endemic fluorosis in San Luis Potosí, México. Identification of risk factors associated with human exposure to fluoride. Environ Res 68, 2530.
Habelitz, S., Marshall, S.J., Marshall, G.W. Jr. & Balooch, M. (2001). Mechanical properties of human dental enamel on the nanometre scale. Arch Oral Bio 46, 173183.
Kirkham, J., Brookes, S.J., Shore, R.C., Bonass, W.A., Smith, D.A., Wallwork, M.L. & Robinson, C. (1998). Atomic force microscopy studies of crystal surface topology during enamel development. Connect Tissue Res 38, 91100.
Klapetek, P., Ohlidal, I. & Bilek, J. (2004). Influence of the atomic force microscope tip on the multifractal analysis of rough surfaces. Ultramicroscopy 102, 5159.
Li, Y.J., Zhao, B.R., Yao, B., Ge, L.H., Yao, J.X. & Shi, G.S. (1993). The characters on histopathological changes in dental fluorosis. Shanghai J Stomatol 2, 218220.
Loyola-Rodríguez, J.P., Zavala-Alonso, V., Reyes-Vela, E., Patiño-Marin, N., Ruiz, F. & Anusavice, K.J. (2010). Atomic force microscopy observation of enamel roughness and depth profile after phosphoric acid etching. J Elect Microsc (Tokyo) 59(2), 119125.
Mascarenhas, A.K. (2000). Risk factors for dental fluorosis: A review of the recent literature. Pediatr Dent 22, 269277.
Pendrys, D.G. (2000). Risk of enamel fluorosis in nonfluoridated and optimally fluoridated populations: Considerations for the dental professional. J Am Dent Assoc 131, 746755.
Richards, A., Likimani, S., Baelum, V. & Fejerskov, O. (1992). Fluoride concentrations in unerupted fluorotic human enamel. Caries Res 26, 328332.
Schaad, P., Paris, E., Cuisinier, F.J. & Voegel, J.C. (1993). Atomic force microscopy study of human tooth enamel surfaces. Scanning Microsc 7, 11491152.
Shrout, P.E. & Fleiss, J.L. (1979). Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability. Psych Bull 2, 420428.
Thylstrup, A. & Fejerskov, O. (1978). Clinical appearance of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth in relation to histologic changes. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 6, 315328.
Vieira, A., Hancock, R., Limeback, H., Maia, R. & Grynpas, M. (2004). Is fluoride concentration in dentin and enamel a good indicator of dental fluorosis? J Dent Res 83, 7680.
Vieira, A., Hancock, R., Limeback, H., Schawartz, M. & Grynpas, M. (2003). How does fluoride concentration in the tooth affect apatite crystal size? J Dent Res 82, 909913.
Vitkov, L., Kastner, M., Kienberger, F., Hinterdorfer, P., Schilcher, K., Grunert, I., Dumfahrt, H. & Krautgartner, W.D (2008). Correlations between AFM and SEM imaging of acid-etched tooth enamel. Ultrastruct Pathol 32, 14.
Wright, J.T., Chen, S.C., Hall, K.I., Yamauchi, M. & Bawden, J.W. (1996). Protein characterization of fluorosed human enamel. J Dent Res 75, 19361941.

Keywords

Characterization of Healthy and Fluorotic Enamel by Atomic Force Microscopy

  • Verónica Zavala-Alonso (a1), Gabriel A. Martínez-Castanon (a1), Nuria Patiño-Marín (a1), Humberto Terrones (a2), Kenneth Anusavice (a3) and Juan P. Loyola-Rodríguez (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed