Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Carrier-Transport Study of Gallium Arsenide Hillock Defects

  • Chuanxiao Xiao (a1), Chun-Sheng Jiang (a1), Jun Liu (a1), Andrew Norman (a1), John Moseley (a1), Kevin Schulte (a1), Aaron J. Ptak (a1), Brian Gorman (a2), Mowafak Al-Jassim (a1), Nancy M. Haegel (a1) and Helio Moutinho (a1)...

Abstract

Single-crystalline gallium arsenide (GaAs) grown by various techniques can exhibit hillock defects on the surface when sub-optimal growth conditions are employed. The defects act as nonradiative recombination centers and limit solar cell performance. In this paper, we applied near-field transport imaging to study hillock defects in a GaAs thin film. On the same defects, we also performed near-field cathodoluminescence, standard cathodoluminescence, electron-backscattered diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. We found that the luminescence intensity around the hillock area is two orders of magnitude lower than on the area without hillock defects in the millimeter region, and the excess carrier diffusion length is degraded by at least a factor of five with significant local variation. The optical and transport properties are affected over a significantly larger region than the observed topography and crystallographic and chemical compositions associated with the defect.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence: Chuanxiao Xiao, E-mail: chuanxiao.xiao@nrel.gov

References

Hide All
Attolini, G, Fornari, R, Pelosi, C, Oswald, J & Simecek, T (1986a). Impurity incorporation and structural defects in hydride VPE InP films. J Cryst Growth 79, 386393.
Attolini, G, Frigeri, C, Pelosi, C & Salviati, G (1986b). Electron beam induced current and cathodoluminescence study of the recombination activity of stacking faults and hillocks in hydride vapor phase epitaxy InP. Appl Phys Lett 49, 167169.
Baird, L, Ong, CP, Cole, RA, Haegel, NM, Talin, AA, Li, Q & Wang, GT (2011). Transport imaging for contact-free measurements of minority carrier diffusion in GaN, GaN/AlGaN, and GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowires. Appl Phys Lett 98, 132104.
Blaine, KE, Phillips, DJ, Frenzen, CL, Scandrett, C & Haegel, NM (2012). Three-dimensional transport imaging for the spatially resolved determination of carrier diffusion length in bulk materials. Rev Sci Instrum 83, 043702.
Boucher, J, Greenaway, A, Egelhofer, KE & Boettcher, S (2017). Analysis of performance-limiting defects in pn junction GaAs solar cells grown by water-mediated close-spaced vapor transport epitaxy. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 159, 546552.
Haegel, NM (2013). Integrating electron and near-field optics: Dual vision for the nanoworld. Nanophotonics 3, 7589.
Haegel, NM, Williams, SE, Frenzen, C & Scandrett, C (2009). Imaging charge transport and dislocation networks in ordered GaInP. Phys B Condens Matter 404, 49634966.
Kaniewska, M & Klima, K (2002). Investigations of surface defects of GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Mater Sci Eng B 91, 512515.
Lazzarini, L, Salviati, G, Franchi, S & Napolitani, E (2001). A TEM and SEM-cathodoluminescence study of oval defects in graded InGaAs/GaAs buffer layers. Mater Sci Eng B 80, 120124.
Little, A, Hoffman, A & Haegel, NM (2013). Optical attenuation coefficient in individual ZnO nanowires. Opt Express 21, 63216326.
Mehta, SK, Muralidharan, R, Sharda, GD & Jain, RK (1992). Some investigations on oval defects in MBE-grown GaAs. Semicond Sci Technol 7, 635.
Shinohara, M, Ito, T, Wada, K & Imamura, Y (1984). Electrical properties of oval defects in GaAs grown by MBE. Jpn J Appl Phys 23, L371.
Szerling, A, Kosiel, K, Wójcik-Jedlińska, A, Płuska, M & Bugajski, M (2006). Investigation of oval defects in (In)Ga(Al)As/GaAs heterostructures by spatially resolved photoluminescence and micro-cathodoluminescence. Mater Sci Semicond Process 9, 2530.
Xiao, C, Jiang, C-S, Moseley, J, Simon, J, Schulte, K, Ptak, AJ, Johnston, S, Gorman, B, Al-Jassim, M, Haegel, NM & Moutinho, H (2017). Near-field transport imaging applied to photovoltaic materials. Sol Energy 153, 134141.
Xiao, C, Li, Z, Guthrey, H, Moseley, J, Yang, Y, Wozny, S, Moutinho, H, To, B, Berry, JJ, Gorman, B, Yan, Y, Zhu, K & Al-Jassim, M (2015). Mechanisms of electron-beam-induced damage in perovskite thin films revealed by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. J Phys Chem C 119, 2690426911.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Xiao et al. supplementary material
Xiao et al. supplementary material

 Word (7.2 MB)
7.2 MB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed