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The influence of synoptic-mesoscale winds and sea surface temperature distribution on fog formation near the Korean western peninsula

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 December 2006

Hyo Choi
Affiliation:
Department of Atmospheric Environmental Sciences, Kangnung National University, Kangnung, Kangwondo, 210-702, Korea Email: du8392@hanmail.net
Milton S. Speer
Affiliation:
School of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
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Abstract

When high pressure is located near the Korean peninsula, a diffluent wind regime generally occurs over the Yellow Sea. At night or early morning, diffluent westerly winds occur on the western side of the Korean peninsula near Inchon city and encounter a combined land breeze and katabatic easterly offshore wind, resulting in conditions ranging from calm to a moderate westerly wind near the coast. Nocturnal radiational cooling of the land surface and the moisture laden westerly winds can cause air near the coast to become saturated, resulting in coastal advection fog. During the day, on the other hand, the synoptic-scale westerly wind is reinforced by a westerly sea breeze and is further reinforced by a westerly valley wind directed upslope towards the mountain top. Even if the resulting intensified onshore wind could transport a large amount of moisture from the sea over the land, it would be very difficult for fog to form because the daytime heat flux from the ground would develop the convective boundary layer inland from Inchon city sufficiently to reduce significantly the moisture content of the air. Therefore, fog does not generally form in situ over the inland coastal basin. When an area of cold sea water (10 °C average) exists approximately 25–50 km offshore and the sea surface temperature increases towards the coast, air parcels over the cool sea surface are cooled sufficiently to saturation, resulting in the formation of advection sea fog. However, at the coast, nocturnal cooling of the ground further cools the advected moist air driven by the westerly wind and causes coastal advection fog to form.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
2006 Royal Meteorological Society

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