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The different activities described by the generic word recycling are presented
along with an evaluation of the benefits of recycling in terms of natural resources
or energy savings and reduction of Green House Gas emissions. A detailed analysis
is presented of steel recycling, by-product recycling and end of life consumer
goods recycling. The GHG emissions avoided thanks to sustainable steel recycling are
evaluated in a long-term perspective. By-product recycling is also a major issue that
has already been addressed with satisfactory results, as blast furnace slag valorization
in the cement industry. This exemplifies the cross-business valorization of by-products
with strong implications in terms of GHG emissions mitigation. Metal recovery is not yet
as fully developed although a fairly satisfying solution is being implemented on the
basis of the Rotary Hearth Furnace which separates iron from zinc with production of
a DRI and concentration of zinc to a high enough level for direct use by zinc smelters.
The future European regulations for consumer goods will require a high level of
recyclability that will favour the design with metals instead of other materials such
as plastics. Recycling is a complex, rich and fruitful concept that is popular today
and will remain strong in the future. It functions both in the market economy and in the
administrative world, with by-products moving around the various production shops within
a business or between businesses of different crafts. Sustainable recycling is
a significant and majority resource for the steel industry which, along with its partners
in the recycling loop, has been a pioneer in the world of recycling.
Today's steelmaking is constantly challenged by increasing quality demand
and the term “Clean Steel” has gained more and more ground. In many steel plants,
slag carry over from the ladle into the tundish is negatively influencing the quality
of steel. When the casting starts, the steel flows undisturbed through the defined
bore of the seating block and inner nozzle, the whole cross section of the bore
filled with steel, but due to the vortex-effect a slag core appears in the centre
of the steel stream towards the end of the casting. The solution is the Clean Steel Block,
a combination of seating block and purge plugs in the corners. First trials in different
steel plants indicated that the installation of the Clean Steel Block will constantly
suppress the vortex-effect and increases the quality of the semi-finished product.
At the 2001 Autumn Meeting of SF2M (the French Metallurgy and Materials Society),
a symposium has been organized in the memory of Jean Morlet, late President
of Revue de Métallurgie. Different contributions to this symposium, representative
of the type of approach favoured by Jean Morlet, are published in the present
issue of Science et Génie des Matériaux.
A review of recent developments in imaging with a transmission electron
microscope is proposed here. A first part is devoted to applications in the
“imaging” mode: interest of field emission, “Z-contrast”, quantitative high
resolution electron microscopy and reconstruction techniques. A second part
will deal with the “diffraction” mode: convergent beam diffraction and
Sun Coke Company's heat recovery cokemaking technology has been developed over the past 40
years, and is now poised to become the dominant technology to meet future global cokemaking
needs. An extensive data base regarding coal blends tested and resultant coke quality will be
presented. On the environmental front, extensive air emission data has been collected
and will be compared to by-product coke plant air emission data.