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A methodology is proposed for taking recycling, an essential activity
of the developed economies, into account within LCA tools. The
reasoning for choosing the methodology is exposed step by step.
The final proposal is centered on the multiple-recycling model, which
best describes the practical way that materials are actually recycled
in the economy. From a practical standpoint, the results obtained are attributed to
steel on the basis of a specific value (e.g. t of CO2 per t of steel),
which amounts to averaging the impact over the various steps of the
recycling process on a weighted average basis, depending on the
amount of material recycled at each step.
The new Brazilian free energy market and the possibilities afforded
by the carbon credits motivated a reassessment of Top Recovery
Turbines (TRT), to be installed on blast furnaces 2 and 3 of CST.
These turbines could recover about 16 MW electric energy. Several options have been considered, including energy selling,
internal consumption and through Arcelor Brazil consumption,
taking also carbon credits into account.
An innovative modelling strategy has been developed and validated
to help the design of steel reheating furnaces. A set of complementary
simulation tools has been used to rethink the furnace concept,
namely the Digit@l FurnaceTM, from the burners to the global energy
system optimisation. Several Digit@l FurnacesTM are now in operation
on hot rolling mills. Advantages in terms of pollutant emissions,
operation costs and flexibility have been demonstrated on site.
The application software “Integrated Solution for Sinter Plant and
Blast Furnace Charging” is presented. This is a decision-making
support system that includes a mathematical model for the automatic
and optimized generation of charging solutions for the sinter plant
and blast furnace processes. This model assures the quality specifications of the products, environmental
limits as well as availability of materials, with particular
focus on the operational stability. Furthermore, it allows managerial
analysis including the acquisition strategies of new consumables
A new mold flux has been developed to favour cuspidine crystallisation
at the upper level of the mold. This reduces the local heat flux
and allows an even solidification of the slab shell, thus preventing
any occurrence of longitudinal cracks. Pilot tests have established
that the new flux make it possible to cast hypoperitectic steel slabs
at casting speeds up to 5 m/min.
Use of stainless steel rebar for concrete reinforcement is increasing
worldwide. The enhanced properties of stainless steel prove to be a
viable solution when life cycle costs of the structures are taken into
account. Austenitic and duplex stainless steels are used as rebar
because they present an excellent combination of corrosion resistance
in concrete, high strength and good ductility. The resistance to pitting corrosion of various stainless steels has
been evaluated by electrochemical tests. Thus, it is possible to
select the appropriate grade according to the environment the concrete
structure is submitted to during its life. A classification of the
selected austenitic and duplex grades is introduced.