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The leading position of ISPAT as a producer and consumer of DRI is explained. For DRI
production, raw material quality and DR process conditions are important factors contributing in
particular to optimize metallization and productivity. The conditions for the use of this DRI in
ISPAT's steel plants are also described : continuous feeding, economic blending for residuals
control, low nitrogen operation at the EAF. Increased metallization and high carbon content of
DRI have positive effects on power consumption, yield, heat losses, etc. in the steel plant.
The principle of the FINMET fluidized bed direct-reduction process is reviewed and the two
presently built installations are presented. The problems encountered at the start-up of the Port
Hedland plant have been solved by modifying the process parameters. With the new operating
conditions, production rate and product quality are at the desired level.
At the integrated works of the Indian steelproducer Jindal Vijayanagar Steel Ltd, the first of the
two planned COREX® units is in operation since August 1999. This ironmaking plant, which was
designed and erected by VOEST-ALPINE Industrieanlagenbau (VAI), operates since its
start-up at a production level significantly exceeding the design capacity. The paper describes
the process sequence, the materials used and the operating results. The second unit of the
same type is planned to start-up during the second quarter of 2001.
CRM has developed a mathematical model of the sintering process aiming to optimize the latter
in terms of both performances and environmental impact. The model is able to simulate
conventional sintering as well as original layouts like selective waste gas recycling with
integrated desulphurization or steam injection at the sinter bed surface. The results (in particular
CO and SO2 emission profiles) have been validated experimentally and also at the industrial
The main operating results of the European blast furnaces in 1998 are presented. The
parameters influencing the productivity of blast furnaces are recalled. In Europe, actions have
been taken to optimize blast furnaces operation: composition and quality of the burden, burden
distribution, tapping practice, etc. Further improvements of the operating performances are
The objectives and the context of the major maintenance work carried out on Cockerill Sambre's
BF B and 6 are presented. After preparation and dismantling operations, the hearth of BF B was
cleaned and relined. Simultaneously, the stock was partly equipped with copper staves. Good
planning and coordination allowed the work to be executed in safety, within the schedule and
with the required quality. The same principles have been applied for the repair of BF 6.
After the desciption of the Perrin process in the first part of the paper, the second part deals with
the socio-technical and enterprise aspects of the history of this process. The development
block concept is used to analyse the different phenomena explaining the fate of this technical
invention. The critical role played by Perrin himself is emphasized. The reasons why, despite
favourable enterpreneurial conditions, the process was not more widely used are discussed.
This paper describes how an optimization of the rolling conditions (roll lubrication, strip chilling)
and the use of new roll qualities on the 2050 mm hot strip mill at Iscor Vanderbijlpark, allowed to
realize the full potential of HSS rolls. Based on development work and laboratory studies on
oxidation behaviour, these improvements benefit both to Hi-Cr and HSS rolls. The full
implementation of HSS in stands F1 to F4 during year 2000 will allow to increase the mill
availability by eliminating the intermediate roll change and reduce the work load in the roll shop.
Steel and steel composite bridges share a rather small part of the total bridge market.
Nevertheless they are unbeatable for very longspan, extremely slender and/or movable bridges
or in the replacement and/or widening of existing bridges. The reduced weight of steel bridges
and of the steel structure of steel composite bridges allows a quick and cost effective erection
by launching, lifting, a combination of both, rotation and the like.