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PERSISTENCE OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN SOIL FOLLOWING APPLICATION OF CONIDIA THROUGH CROP CANOPIES

  • G.D. Inglis (a1), G.M. Duke (a2), P. Kanagaratnam (a2), D.L. Johnson (a2) and M.S. Goettel (a2)...

Abstract

The influence of three formulations, water, oil, and a 5% oil emulsion, and two crops, alfalfa and crested wheatgrass, on the deposition and subsequent persistence of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin conidia in soil was investigated. The alfalfa canopy was considerably denser than that of wheatgrass. Leaf area indices for alfalfa ranged from 1.8 to greater than 2, those for wheatgrass ranged from 0.24 to 0.55. Initial populations of conidia averaged 1.2 × 103 to 2.6 × 104 colony-forming units (cfu) per gram of dry weight of soil under alfalfa, and 5.5 × 103 to 3.4 × 104 cfu per gram of soil under wheatgrass. There was no consistent influence of formulation or application method (high or ultra low volume) on penetration of conidia through the canopy of either crop. However, conidial populations under wheatgrass were larger than those under alfalfa in two of three trials. After 225–272 days (over winter), substantial populations (87 to 4.3 × 104 cfu/g) were recovered from soil. Although conidial densities decreased over time, reductions in population size over this period were generally less than one order of magnitude; neither crop nor formulation consistently influenced conidial persistence. In most instances, a rapid decrease in conidial populations was observed within approximately 20 days but thereafter, the rates of population decline abated. The initial decrease in conidial numbers did not appear to be related to precipitation. This study demonstrates that substantial numbers of B. bassiana conidia infiltrate crop canopies, are deposited on the soil surface, and subsequently persist in a clay–loam soil. The aerial application of B. bassiana conidia to vegetated roadsides may prove useful for the management of ovipositing grasshoppers and emerging nymphs.

L'influence de trois types de préparations, dans de l'eau, dans de l'huile et dans une émulsion de 5% d'huile et de deux types de récolte, la luzerne et le chiendent à crête, sur la persistance des conidies de Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin dans le sol a été évaluée. La couverture de luzerne était beaucoup plus dense que celle du chiendent. L'indice de surface du feuillage allait de 1,8 à plus de 2 dans le cas de la luzerne, alors que le même indice a été évalué à 0,24–0,55 dans le cas du chiendent. Les populations initiales de conidies contenaient en moyenne de 1,2 × 104 à 2,6 × 104 unités formant des colonies (cfu) par gramme de masse sèche de sol sous la luzerne, et de 5,5 × 103 à 3,4 × 104 cfu par gramme de sol sous le chiendent. Il n'y avait pas d'effet défini de la préparation ou de la méthode d'application (volume élevé ou ultrafaible) sur la pénétration des conidies à travers la couverture des deux types de plantes. Cependant, les populations de conidies sous le chiendent se sont avérées plus importantes que celles évaluées sous la luzerne dans deux des trois tests. Après 225–272 jours (l'hiver), des populations importantes (87 à 4,3 × 10 cfu/g) ont été trouvées dans le sol. Bien que les densités de conidies aient diminué avec le temps, les réductions enregistrées au cours de cette période étaient généralement inférieures à un ordre de grandeur; ni le type de récolte, ni le type de préparation n'ont influencé systématiquement la persistance des conidies. Dans la plupart des cas, un déclin important des populations de conidies a été enregistré en moins de 20 jours environ, mais, par la suite, les populations se sont stabilisées. La diminution initiale du nombre de conidies ne semblait pas reliée aux précipitations. Cette recherche a démontré que des nombres importants de conidies de B. bassiana s'infiltrent sous la couverture des récoltes, tombent à la surface du sol et continuent de vivre dans les sols argileux–glaiseux. La pulvérisation aérienne de conidies de B. bassiana sur les plantes en bordure des routes peut éventuellement s'avérer une bonne méthode de lutte contre les femelles pondeuses de criquets et contre les larves qui émergent. [Traduit par la Rédaction]

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PERSISTENCE OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN SOIL FOLLOWING APPLICATION OF CONIDIA THROUGH CROP CANOPIES

  • G.D. Inglis (a1), G.M. Duke (a2), P. Kanagaratnam (a2), D.L. Johnson (a2) and M.S. Goettel (a2)...

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