Skip to main content Accessibility help


  • K.B. Bolte


A revision of 62 taxa of Eupithecia of Canada has been carried out. A generalized description of key characters for the identification of the Geometridae and the Eupithecia in adult, larval and pupal stages is given. Included is a key for the Eupithecia adults.A description is given of each species, supplemented by scanning electron microscope photographs of the terminal segment of the pupa and the head and antenna of the adult, with line drawings of male and female genitalia, colour photographs of the adults, and distribution maps. Special emphasis is given to descriptions of the antenna and its cuticle, to the everted vesica of the male genitalia, and to the pupa.Life histories are given for 45 of the taxa. In some cases specimens of Palaearctic and Nearctic species were examined together for the first time and as a result, changes in the taxonomy are made. Altogether, 27 taxonomic changes are made, eight new groups proposed, one group split into two, and two new species described.The species have been loosely rearranged according to the shape of the males eighth sternite.



Hide All
Anonymous. 1981. An identification guide to the British Pugs. Lepidoptera, Geometridae. British Entomological and Natural History Society. 56 pp.
Barnes, W., and McDunnough, J.H.. 1912 a. Illustrations of rare and typical Lepidoptera. Contr. Nat. Hist. Lep. N. Am. No. 4. 1: 163.
Barnes, W., and McDunnough, J.H.. 1912 b. Notes on Taylor's types of Geometridae. Can. Ent. 44: 270275.
Barnes, W., and McDunnough, J.H.. 1916. Synonymic notes on North America Heterocera. Contr. Nat. Hist. Lep. N. Am. No. 3, 3: 153210.
Barnes, W., and McDunnough, J.H.. 1918. Lepidoptera of North America. Notes and new species. Contr. Nat. Hist. Lep. N. Am. No. 2, 4: 59208.
Bleszynski, S. 1965. Keys for the determination of the insects of Poland. Sect. 27. Lepidoptera. Part 46b. Geometridae. Hydriomeninae. Polish Entomological Society, pp. 193305. [In Polish.]
Bolte, K.B. 1978. A new species of Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) from Alaska. Can. Ent. 110: 10191020.
Bruce, D. 1887. Food plants of Geometridae with other notes. Ent. Am. 3: 4750.
Cassino, S.E. 1925. On some Eupithecia with asymmetrical genitalia. Lepidopterist 4: 4756.
Cassino, S.E. 1927. New Geometrids. Lepidopterist 4: 7280.
Cassino, S.E., and Swett, L.W.. 1922 a. Some new Geometrids. Lepidopterist 3: 144150.
Cassino, S.E. 1922 b. New Geometrids. Lepidopterist 3: 157166.
Cassino, S.E. 1922 c. Some new Geometridae. Lepidopterist 3: 167174.
Cassino, S.E. 1922 d. Some new Geometridae. Lepidopterist 3: 183187.
Cassino, S.E. 1923. New Geometrids. Lepidopterist 4: 1824.
Cassino, S.E. 1924. Some new Eupithecias. Lepidopterist 4: 2528.
Cassino, S.E. 1925. Some new Geometridae. Lepidopterist 4: 4156.
Clerck, C.A. 1759. Icones Insectorum Rariorum cum nominibus eoram Holmiae V. 84 pp.
Cooke, N. 1881. Description of a Eupithecia new to the British List. Entomologist 14: 43.
Denis, M., and Schiffermüller, I.. 1776. Syst. Verz. Wien. 101.
Dietze, K. Von. 1875. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der arten der Gattung Eupithecia Curt. Stett. ent. Ztg. 36: 236256.
Dietze, K. Von. 1906. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Eupithecien. Dt. ent. Z. Iris 19: 206212.
Dietze, K. Von. 1910–1913. Biologie der Eupithecien Kommissionsverlag Von R. Friedlander und Sohn, Berlin N.W. 6. 172 pp.
Djakonov, A.M. 1926. Zur Kentnis der Geometriden Fauna des Minussinsk—Bezirks (Sibirien, Ienissej Gouv.). Jahrb. Martjanov. Staatsm. Minusinsk 4: 78 pp.
Dod, F.H.W. 1906. Preliminary list of the Macro-Lepidoptera of Alberta N.W.T. Can. Ent. 38: 8994.
Doubleday, H. 1856. List of the British Eupithecia with notes on some of the species. Zoologist 14: 51395144.
Doubleday, H. 1861. Notes on new or little known British Eupithecia; the descriptions of the larvae by H. Harpur Crewe. Zoologist 19: 75667569.
Duponchel, P.A.J. 1831. Histoire naturelle des Lépidoptères ou Papillons de France. Nocturnes. Paris.
Dyar, H.G. 1904. The Lepidoptera of the Kootenay District of British Columbia. Proc. U.S. Natn. Mus. 27: 888901.
Dyar, H.G. 1905. New North American Lepidoptera and synonymical notes. Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 7: 2940.
Dyar, H.G. 1917. Miscellaneous new American Lepidoptera. Insecutor Inscit. Menstr. 5: 6569.
Eriksson, H. 1980. Eupithecia. En fylogenetisk betraktelse. Husksjoasen. 68 pp. Published privately.
Ferguson, D.C. 1954. The Lepidoptera of Nova Scotia. Part 1 (Macrolepidoptera). Proc. Nova Scotian Inst. Sci. 23(3): 159375.
Ferguson, D.C. 1978. Noctuoidea (in part). Lymantriidae. In Dominick, R.B., et al. (Eds.), The Moths of America North of Mexico. Fascicle 22.2. E.W. Classey Ltd. and The Wedge Ent. Res. Found; London. Faringdon, England. 154 pp.
Fibiger, M. 1979. Eupithecia absinthiata Cl./goossensiata Mab., en eller to arter. Lepidoptera 3: 203206.
Forbes, W.T.M. 1948. Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states, 2. Mem. Cornell Univ. agric. Exp. Stn. 274: 160172.
Franklin, J. 1907. Notes on certain cranberry-bog insects. Ent. News 18: 1720.
Freyer, C.F. 1842. Neuere Beitrage zur Schmetterlingskunde. Augsburg tech. Ztg. 4: 1384.
Goeze, J.A.E. 1781. Entomologische Beitrage zu des Ritter Linné. Zwolften ausgabe des Natursystems. Ent. Beitr. 3(3): 439.
Grossbeck, J.A. 1907. Notes on Eupithecia, with descriptions of new species. Ent. News 18: 342350.
Grote, A.R. 1863. Additions to the catalogue of U.S. Lepidoptera, No. 3. Proc. ent. Soc. Philadelphia 2: 3032.
Guenée, A. 1852–1857. Histoire naturelle des insectes. Spécies général des Lépidoptères. Paris. 407 pp.
Gumppenberg, Carl von. 1888. Systema Geometrarum zonae temperatioris septentrionalis. Systematische Bearbeitung der Spanner der nordlichen gemassigten zone. Nova acta Acad. Caesar Carol. Leop. 52: 125255.
Hardwick, D.F. 1950. Preparation of slide mounts of Lepidopterous genitalia. Can. Ent. 82: 231235.
Harris, R.A. 1979. A glossary of surface sculpturing. Occ. Pap. Ent. No. 28. 31 pp.
Haworth, A.H. 1803–1828. Lepidoptera Britannica. London. 609 pp.
Heitzman, L.R., and Enns, W.R.. 1977. Descriptions of a new species of Eupithecia and the male of E. cocoata Pearsall (Geometridae). J. Res. Lep. 16(2): 7582.
Herrich-Schäffer, G.A.W. 1850–1858. Sammlung neuer oder wenig bekannter aussereuropaischer Schmetterlinge. Regensburg.
Hoffmeyer, S. 1952. De Danske Maalere. Universitetsforlaget 1 AARHUS. 167209 pp.
Hübner, J. 1796–1799. Sammlung Europaischer Schmetterlinge. Pl. 89, Fig. 456.
Hübner, J. 1809–1813. Sammlung Europaischer Schmetterlinge. Pl. 75, Fig. 387.
Hufnagel, . 1767. Fortsetzung der Tabelle von den Nachtvogeln, welche die zte Art verselben, nehmlich die Spannenmesser (Phalaenas Geometras Linnaci) enthalt. Berl. M. 4(6): 599626.
Hulst, G.D. 1880. Description of some new species of Geometridae. Bull. Brook ent. Soc. 3: 4145.
Hulst, G.D. 1896. A classification of the Geometrina of North America, with descriptions of new genera and species. Trans. Am. ent. Soc. 23: 245386.
Hulst, G.D. 1898. Descriptions of new genera and species of the Geometrina of North America. Can. Ent. 30: 113121.
Hulst, G.D. 1900 a. Some new species of Geometridae. Can. Ent. 32: 102107.
Hulst, G.D. 1900 b. In H.G. Dyar. Papers from the Harriman Alaska expedition. X.I. Entomological Results (6): Lepidoptera. Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci. 2: 487501.
Hulst, G.D. 1900 c. New species of Lepidoptera. Jl N.Y. ent. Soc. 8: 215225.
Inoue, H. 1958. Descriptions and records of some Japanese Geometridae (II). Tinea 4(2): 241257.
Inoue, H. 1963. Descriptions and records of some Japanese Geometridae (III). Tinea 6(1/2): 2939.
Inoue, H. 1965. Descriptions and records of some Japanese Geometridae (IV). Tinea 7(1): 102114.
Jones, J.R.J.L. 1951. An annotated check list of the Macro-lepidoptera of British Columbia. Occ. Pap. ent. Soc. Br. Columb. 1. 149 pp.
Juul, K. 1948. Nordens Eupithecier. Gravers Andersens Forlag. 145 pp.
Kaaber, S. 1980. Om artsretten for Eupithecia goossensiata Mab. og Eup. fraxinata Crewe. Lepidoptera 3: 307311.
Kelly, K.L. 1965. ISCC-NBS Color-Name Charts Illustrated with Centroid Colors. Supplement to Natn. Bur. Standards Circ. 553. Washington, DC. 40 pp.
Knaben, N. 1976. The Eupithecia group (Lep., Geometridae) in Norway. Zoo. Mus. Univ. Oslo 133: 4482.
Krogerus, H. 1954. Investigations on the Lepidoptera of Newfoundland 1. Macrolepidoptera. Acta zool. fenn. 82: 180.
Kubotsu, A., and Ueda, M.. 1980. A new conductive treatment of the specimens for Scanning Electron Microscopy. J. Electron Microsc., Chiba Cy. 29(1): 4553.
Kuznetsov, N. Ya. 1915. Fauna of Russia and adjacent countries. Lepidoptera Vol. 1. Introduction. 305 pp. [Translated from Russian.]
Lafontaine, J.D. 1982. Biogeography of the Genus Euxoa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in North America. Can Ent. 114: 153.
Lempke, B.J. 1969. Catalogus der Nederlandse Macrolepidoptera (Vijftiende Supplement). Tijdsch. voor Ent. 112: 1580.
Mabille, P.M. 1869. Notices sur les Lépidoptères de la Corse avec la liste des Acidalides de ce pays la 2e partie de l'énumération monographique des Eupithécies de la corse, et la description de quatre Eupithecia nouvelles pour la faune Parisienne. Annls Soc. ent. Fr., Ser. 4, 9: 5380.
MacKay, M.R. 1951. Species of Eupithecia reared in the Forest Insect Survey in British Columbia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Can. Ent. 83: 7791.
McDunnough, J.H. 1929. Synonymic notes on Canadian Eupithecia (Geomet., Lepid.). Can. Ent. 61: 5969.
McDunnough, J.H. 1930 a. Eupithecia notes. Can. Ent. 72: 3540.
McDunnough, J.H. 1930 b. The Lepidoptera of the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Can. Ent. 62: 107117.
McDunnough, J.H. 1938. An apparently new Eupithecia from North America (Geometridae: Lepid.). Can. Ent. 70: 171173.
McDunnough, J.H. 1940. Eupithecia notes. Can. Ent. 72: 3540.
McDunnough, J.H. 1942. Notes on the early stages of two Eupithecia species (Lepidoptera). Can. Ent. 74: 202203.
McDunnough, J.H. 1944. The palpata group of the genus Eupithecia with notes and descriptions (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Can. Ent. 76: 4556.
McDunnough, J.H. 1945 (1946). New North American Eupithecia 1 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Can. Ent. 77: 168176.
McDunnough, J.H. 1949. Revision of the North American species of the Genus Eupithecia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Bull. Am. Mus. nat. Hist. 93: 533728.
McDunnough, J.H. 1955. Notes on the larva of Eupithecia russeliata Swett (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Bull. Brooklyn ent. Soc. 50: 53.
McGuffin, W.C. 1958. Larvae of the Nearctic Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Can. Ent. 90(8): 1104.
McDunnough, J.H. 1972. Guide to the Geometridae of Canada (Lepidoptera). II. Subfamily Ennominae. I. Mem. ent. Soc. Can. 86. 159 pp.
McDunnough, J.H. 1977. Guide to the Geometridae of Canada (Lepidoptera). II. Subfamily Ennominae. II. Mem. ent. Soc. Can. 101. 191 pp.
McDunnough, J.H. 1981. Guide to the Geometridae of Canada (Lepidoptera). II. Subfamily Ennominae. III. Mem. ent. Soc. Can. 117. 153 pp.
Mikkola, K. 1982. Eupithecia expallidata (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) new to Fennoscandia, with notes on the taxonomy of the E. absinthiata complex. Notul. ent. 62: 1323.
Milliere, M. 1874. De Lépidoptères nouveaux d'Europe. Rev. et Mag. Zool. 2: 241251.
Moeschier, H.B. 1860. Beitrage zur Lepidoperen-Fauna von Labrador. Wien. ent. Monatsschr. 4: 329381.
Moeschier, H.B. 1883. Beitrage zur Schmetterlings-Fauna von Labrador. Stettin, ent. Ztg. 44: 114127.
Montgomery, S.L. 1982. Biogeography of the moth genus Eupithecia in Oceania and the evolution of ambush predation in Hawaiian caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Ent. Gen. 8(1): 027034.
Mösher, E. 1916. A classification of the Lepidoptera based on characters of the pupa. Bull Ill. St. Lab. nat. Hist. 12(2): 13159.
Moeschier, H.B. 1917. Pupae of some Maine species of Notodontoidea. Bull. Maine agric. Exp. Stn. 259 pp.
Packard, A.S. 1867. View of the Lepidopterous fauna of Labrador. Proc. Boston Soc. nat. Hist. 11: 3263.
Packard, A.S. 1871. Catalogue of the Phalaenidae of California. Proc. Boston Soc. nat. Hist. 13: 381405.
Packard, A.S. 1873. Descriptions of new American Phalaenidae. Fifth Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. pp. 5281.
Packard, A.S. 1874. Catalogue of the Phalaenidae of California. Proc. Boston Soc. nat. Hist. 16: 1340.
Packard, A.S. 1876. A monograph of the Geometrid moths or Phalaenidae of the United States. Rep. U.S. geol. Surv. Terr. 10: 1607.
Pearsall, R.F. 1908 a. Two new species of Eupithecia Curtis. Ent. News 19: 128131.
Pearsall, R.F. 1908 b. Eastern and Central Eupithecia. Jl N.Y. ent. Soc. 16: 98103.
Pearsall, R.F. 1908 c. Eastern Eupithecia. Ent. News 19: 192195.
Pearsall, R.F. 1909. New Geometridae and notes (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 11: 119132.
Pearsall, R.F. 1910 a. Vagrant Eupithecias. Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 12: 138145.
Pearsall, R.F. 1910 b. Eupithecias that appear to be undescribed. Ent. News 21: 157160.
Pearsall, R.F. 1912 a. Eupithecias that appear to be undescribed (Lepid.). Ent. News 23: 442443.
Pearsall, R.F. 1912 a. Geometridae as yet undescribed. Can. Ent. 44: 2831.
Petersen, W. 1909. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Gattung Eupithecia Curt. Iris 22: 203311.
Pierce, F.N. 1909. The Genitalia of the Group Noctuidae of the Lepidoptera of the British Islands. Liverpool. 88 pp.
Packard, A.S. 1914. Classification of the British Geometridae based on the structure of the male and female genitalia. Liverpool. 88 pp. Prentice R.M. (Compiler). 1963. Forest Lepidoptera of Canada recorded by the Forest Insect Survey. 3. Lasiocampidae, Thyatiridae, Drepanidae, Geometridae. Can. Dep. For. Publ. 1013. 543 pp.
Prior, G. 1908. The Eupitheciini or “Pugs”. Proc. Brit. ent. nat. Hist. Soc. 13: 1822.
Prout, L.B. 1915. Spannerartige Nachtfalter, In Seitz, A. (Ed.), Die Gross-Schmetterlinge des Palaarktischen Faunengebietes. 4. Alfred Kernen Verlag, Stuttgart. 479 pp.
Rindge, F.H. 1952. Taxonomic and life history notes on North American Eupithecia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Am. Mus. Novit. 1569. 27 pp.
Rindge, F.H. 1956. Descriptions of and notes on North American Geometridae (Lepidoptera). Am. Mus. Novit. 1784. pp. 15.
Rindge, F.H. 1963. Notes on and descriptions of North American Eupithecia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). Am. Mus. Novit. 2147. 23 pp.
Ross, A.H., and Lindquist, O.H.. 1980. Insects of eastern larch, cedar and juniper. For. Tech. Rep. 28. Can. For. Serv., Dept. Envir. 100 pp.
Ross, D.A., and Evans, D.. 1956. Annotated list of forest insects of British Columbia. Part III, Eupithecia spp. (Geometridae). Proc. ent. Soc. Br. Columb. 52: 3638.
Schneider, D. 1964. Insect antennae. A. Rev. Ent. 9: 103122.
Schneider, D., and Kaissling, Karl-Ernst. 1957. Der Bau der Antenne des Seidenspinners Bombyx mori L. II. Sensillen, cuticulare Bildingen und innerer Bau. Zool. Jb. Abt. Anat. Ontog. Tiere. 76: 223250.
South, R. 1948. The moths of the British Isles. Warne, F., London, pp. 222254.
Staudinger, O. 1857. Reise nach Island zu entomologischen Zwecken unternommen. Stettin, ent. Ztg. 7: 209289.
Staudinger, O. 1861. I. Macrolepidoptera bearbeitet von O. Staudinger in Dresden. Stettin, ent. Ztg. 22: 342–104.
Staudinger, O. 1871. Catalog der Lepidopteren des Europaeischen Faunengebeits. I. Macrolepidoptera. Dresden. 426 pp.
Swett, L.W. 1907. Geometrid notes, with descriptions of new species. Can. Ent. 39: 377379.
Swett, L.W. 1908. Geometrid notes, with descriptions of new species. Can. Ent. 40: 245247.
Swett, L.W. 1911. Geometrid notes. A new Eupithecia. Can. Ent. 43: 255256.
Swett, L.W., and Cassino, S.E.. 1919. Some new Geometrids. Lepidopterist 3: 105110.
Taylor, G.W. 1906 a. On the species of Eupithecia occurring at Calgary, Alberta, with descriptions of four supposed to be new. Can. Ent. 38: 101104.
Taylor, G.W. 1906 b. Some new Geometridae from British Columbia. Can. Ent. 38: 389405.
Taylor, G.W. 1906 c. Eupithecia youngata. A Geometrid moth new to science. Ottawa Nat. 19: 225227.
Taylor, G.W. 1906 a. On some new species of Geometrid moths from Arizona and California. Ent. News 17: 188192.
Taylor, G.W. 1907 a. On some new species of Geometridae from western Canada. Trans. Soc. Can. 1: 199203.
Taylor, G.W. 1907 b. Description of Eupithecia fletcherata, a Geometrid moth from Ottawa, new to science. Ottawa Nat. 20: 200202.
Taylor, G.W. 1907 c. The Eupithecia of eastern North America. Can. Ent. 39: 276282.
Taylor, G.W. 1908. Notes on the Lepidoptera of Kaslo, B.C., with descriptions of seven new species. Can. Ent. 40: 5460.
Taylor, G.W. 1909. The Eupithecia of Eastern North America. No. 3. Can. Ent. 41: 425–28.
Taylor, G.W. 1910. Descriptions of new species of Eupithecia from eastern America. Can. Ent. 42: 7783.
Vojnits, A. 1974. New Eupithecia species (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) from China. Studies on Palaearctic Eupithecia species. III. Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 20(1–2): 219226.
Taylor, G.W. 1975. Geometridae: Eupithecini II. (Lepidoptera). Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 21(3–1): 447453.
Walker, F. 1862. Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Heterocera in the British Museum. Pt. 24, pp. 1021–1280.
Wolff, N. 1964. The Lepidoptera of Greenland. Meddelelser om Gronland, 159: 3033.
Zetterstedt, J.W. 1839. Insecta Lapponica. Lepidoptera. pp. 8691014.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO


  • K.B. Bolte


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.