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Bordered magic squares of odd order

  • S. Vaithianathan (a1)


A normal n × n magic square consists of the numbers 1, 2, … , n 2 arranged in a square so that the sum of each column, row and the two diagonals is In an odd order normal magic square , the central number is This article concerns bordered magic squares of odd order, which are squares that remain magic when each outer row and column is peeled off.



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1. Rouse Ball, W. W. and Coxeter, H. S. M., Mathematical recreations and essays, MacMillan (1959).
2. Travers, J., Education Outlook (1936)
3. Heath, R.V., Scripta Mathematica 4, (1936) p. 67.
4. Travers, J., Engineering Gazette (13 August 1938) p. 6.

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Bordered magic squares of odd order

  • S. Vaithianathan (a1)


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