We report on a high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HRXPS) study using synchrotron radiation, for the identification of the core level binding energies of Ga 3d and N 1s, from a stoichiometric Ga-polar GaN(0001)-1×1 sample.
Three surface shifted components were found on the stoichiometric surface for the Ga 3d feature. The first surface shifted component has a higher binding energy of 0.85 eV, and is interpreted as surface Ga with one of the N bonds replaced by an empty dangling bond. This structure is belonging to the stoichiometric clean and ordered Ga-polar GaN(0001)-1×1 surface. The second, with a binding energy relative the bulk of −0.76 eV, is interpreted as Ga with one of the bonds to a Ga atom, which indicates a slight excess of Ga on the surface. The third surface shifted component is shifted by 2.01 eV and is related to gallium oxide in different configurations.
The N 1s feature is complex with five surface shifted components relative the bulk were found. Two components with binding energy shifts of −0.54 eV and 0.47 eV are interpreted as surface shifted core levels from the stoichiometric, clean Ga-polar GaN(0001)-1×1 surface.
We also analysed the Ga 3d spectrum after deposition of 1.5 ML of Ga on a stoichiometric surface. The surface shift for the Ga 3d5/2 component from the Ga overlayer is −1.74 eV relative the bulk GaN.
The C 1s and O 1s core levels from remaining surface contamination have also been line shaped analysed and show complex structures.