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An AlxGa1−xN/GaN two-dimensional electron gas structure with x = 0.13 deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on a GaN layer grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy on a sapphire substrate was characterized. Hall effect measurements gave a sheet electron concentration of 5.1×1012 cm−2 and a mobility of 1.9 × 104 cm2/Vs at 10 K. Mobility spectrum analysis showed single-carrier transport and negligible parallel conduction at low temperatures. The sheet carrier concentrations determined from Shubnikov-de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations were in good agreement with the Hall data. The electron effective mass was determined to be 0.215±0.006 m0 based on the temperature dependence of the amplitude of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. The quantum lifetime was about one-fifth of the transport lifetime of 2.3 × 10−12 s.