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Confocal laser scanning microscopy method for in vivo bryozoan larvae identification

  • A. Tsyganov-Bodounov (a1) and David O.F. Skibinski (a2)


Knowledge of bryozoan larval types is limited to a relatively small number of species. Further information is needed to establish traits of evolutionary significance and thus advance bryozoan taxonomy. Morphological classification of bryozoan larvae has previously focused on electron microscopy, epi-fluorescence microscopy and lightfield microscopy methods. These are either relatively time consuming and require fixed material, or they fail to reveal surface features of larvae. A method is presented here, based on confocal laser scanning microscopy, which allows in vivo 3-D imaging of larvae. The method could also be used for imaging other marine invertebrate larvae of comparable size.


Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: A. Tsyganov-Bodounov, School of the Environment & Society, Biological Sciences, University of Wales, Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK emails:,


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Confocal laser scanning microscopy method for in vivo bryozoan larvae identification

  • A. Tsyganov-Bodounov (a1) and David O.F. Skibinski (a2)


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