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Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 June 2017

Dimitris K. Christopoulos
Panteion University
Peter McAdam
European Central Bank and University of Surrey
E-mail address:


We examine technical efficiency in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). In addition to economic indicators, political and social ones play a role in development and efficiency profiles. The MENA have been characterized by increasing economic efficiency over time but with marked polarization. We analyze and nest many key hypotheses, e.g., the contributions of religion, of natural resources, demographic pressures, human capital, etc. The originality of our contribution is the use of a large data set (including principal components), and extensive robustness checks. It should set a comprehensive benchmark and cross-check for related studies of development and technical efficiency.

Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017 

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We thank two referees, William H. Greene, Ian Jolliffe, Stas Kolenikov, Peter Schmidt, Elias Tzavalis, and many seminar audiences. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the ECB.


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