Leptogium imbricatum P.M. Jorg. sp. nov. and L. intermedium (Arnold)Arnold are established as the correct names for two fairly widespread, small species:L. imbricatum has an arctic–alpine distribution. Leptogium intermedium was previously mostly named L. minutissimum (Florke) Fr., the type of which is L. subtile (Schrader) Torss., a distinct species usually growing on rotting wood or debris. Leptogium magnussonii Degel. & P.M. Jorg, mainly from maritime rock outcrops in Norway and Sweden, is described as new. The species complexes of L. plicatile (Ach.) Leighton and L. schraderi (Bernh.) Nyl. are discussed. The differences between L. byssinum (Hoffm.) Nyl. and L. biatorinum (Nyl.) Leighton are given, and L. aquale (Arnold) P.M. Jørg. comb, nov., a taxon related to the latter, is considered to be a distinct species growing in mountain brooks in Central Europe. Leptogium rivale Tuck, is recorded as new to Europe, from Romania. Leptogium bellopratense Hy is shown to be a synonym of L. brebissonii Mont. New records for L. coralloideum (Meyen & Flotow) Vainio, L. massiliense Nyl. and L. rivulare (Ach.) Mont, are given.A preliminary key to the small European species (north of the Alps) is appended. The following names have been lecto– or neotypified: Collema byssinum Hoffm., Collema pulvinatum Hoffm., Leptogium bellopratense Hy., Leptogium crenulatum Watson, Leptogium massiliense Nyl., Leptogium minutissimum var. intermedium Arnold, Leptogium minutissimum f. plumbeum Zwackh ex Arnold, Leptogium pusillum var. aquale Arnold, Leptogium rivulare var. crenatulum Nyl., Leptogium scotinum var. crenatum Nyl., Lichen byssinus Hoffm., Lichen minutissimus Flöurke, Lichen schraderi Bernh., Lichen subtilis Schrader and Parmelia scotina var. lophaea Ach.