Twenty species of Phyllopsora are recognized in Peru, 8 of which are described as new: P. atrocarpa, P. brakoae, P. glaucescens, P. labriformis, P. lacerata, P. lividocarpa, P. nigrocincta, and P. soralifera. Four new combinations are proposed: Phyllopsora cinchonarum (Fée) Timdal, P. glaucella (Vain.) Timdal, P. leucophyllina (Nyl.) Timdal, and for an extra-Peruvian species, P. sorediata (Aptroot & Sparrius) Timdal. The genera Squamacidia and Triclinum are synonymized with Phyllopsora and sorediate species are included in the genus for the first time. Phyllopsora chodatinica, P. swinscowii, and the acid deficient chemotype of P. furfuracea are new to the neotropics and P. cuyabensis, P. glaucella and P. leucophyllina are new to Peru. A key to the Peruvian species is provided.