The new species Cryptothecia fabispora and C. lichexanthonica are described from NE Brazil. The first has domed asci with two large, reniform ascospores and the thallus contains psoromic acid. The second contains lichexanthone and has globose asci. Cryptothecia fabispora was found at the Serra de Itabaiana National Park which represents one of the few rainforest remnants in the state, and is a transitional area with Mata Atlantica influence and also open vegetation spots like Caatinga. It was also found in Caxiuaná in Amazonian Para and may well occur elsewhere. Cryptothecia lichexanthonica was collected at Vale do Catimbau National Park in Pernambuco, which is in a Caatinga area.
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